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Approach and Landing Accidents (ALA)

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Article Information
Category: Controlled Flight Into Terrain Controlled Flight Into Terrain
Content source: SKYbrary About SKYbrary
Content control: SKYbrary About SKYbrary

Definitions

  • Approach: The phase of flight starting when an airworthy aircraft under the control of the flight crew descends below 5,000 feet AGL with the intention to conduct an approach and ending when the aircraft crosses the approach end of the landing runway (runway threshold) or at the commencement of a go around maneuver.
  • Landing: The phase of flight starting when an airworthy aircraft under the control of the flight crew crosses the approach end of the landing runway (runway threshold) and ending when the aircraft safely exits the landing runway, or at the commencement of a go around manoeuvre.
  • Approach and Landing phase of flight: The phase of flight starting when an airworthy aircraft under the control of the flight crew descends below 5,000 feet AGL with the intention to conduct an approach and ending when the aircraft safely exits the landing runway, or the flight crew conducts a go around and flys the aircraft above 5,000 feet AGL enroute to another airport.
  • Approach and Landing Accident: An accident that occurs during the approach and landing phase of flight.

Description

Approach and landing is the highest risk phase of flight, accounting for over 50 percent of all accidents at every level of aviation. Many types of accidents can happen during the approach and landing phase of flight. The most common types of approach and landing accidents are; CFIT (controlled flight into terrain), LOC (loss of control), and runway excursions.

Considerations

Because of its inherent risk there have been many international efforts addressing the approach and landing phase of flight. These efforts have primarily addressed the highest risk areas such as CFIT and runway excursions. They have addressed all aspects of approach and landing accidents, and in addition they also addressed all the responsible parties involved with reducing the risk of approach and landing accidents. These parties include the aircraft manufacturers, aircraft operators, aircrews, air traffic management, regulators, and airports. Many interventions have been created to assist in reducing the risk of accidents in the approach and landing phase of flight. One of these is stabilized approach criteria, which are designed to assist the crew in flying a safe approach and landing. Another intervention is safe landing criteria, which assist the crew in reducing the risk during the landing phase of flight.

Summary

Approach and landing is the highest risk phase of flight. Many types of accidents can happen during the approach and landing phase of flight. Several international safety efforts have addressed the risks of approach and landing and many interventions have been developed to address these risks. These interventions address risk in all aspects of the approach and landing phase of flight, and apply to aircraft manufacturers, aircraft operators, aircrews, air traffic management, regulators, and airports.

Related Articles

Further Reading

DGAC (France) has published three documents in the English language related to non-stabilised approaches.

Flight Safety Foundation Copies of the FSF ALAR Toolkit on CD may be obtained from the Flight Safety Foundation

Airbus Safety Library

CANSO