Accidents and Incidents

This directory contains articles about particular Accidents and Incidents that are considered illustrative of the contemporary safety issues and recommended potential solutions. The information contained in the article summarising an individual accident or incident is derived from the published official investigation report, which may in each case be found on the SKYbrary bookshelf wherever possible in English as provided by the publishing Investigation Agency. A direct link to each official report is provided at the end of each summary article. The complete list of events is provided on this and the following pages in the order of the ICAO aircraft type designator in alphabetical order.

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Showing below 1385 results in range #601 to #700.

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B738, Goteborg Sweden, 2003 On 7 December 2003, a Boeing 737-800 being operated by SAS on a passenger charter flight from Salzburg, Austria to Stockholm Arlanda with an intermediate stop at Goteborg made a high speed rejected take off during the departure from Goteborg because of an un-commanded premature rotation. There were no injuries to any occupants and no damage to the aircraft which taxied back to the gate.

B738, Halifax Canada, 2020 On 5 January 2020, a Boeing 737-800 overran the wet snow contaminated landing runway at Halifax by almost 100 metres after a touchdown zone landing and a maximum deceleration effort followed a stabilised ILS approach to a shorter runway than originally intended which also had an out of limits tailwind component and was anyway flown contrary to required tailwind speed control. The Investigation found the crew had assumed the only significant difference between the initially planned and eventually used runways was the shorter length of the latter which was judged acceptable and no new landing performance data had been accessed.

B738, Hobart Australia, 2010 On 24 November 2010, a Boeing 737-800 being operated by Virgin Blue Airlines on a scheduled passenger flight from Melbourne, Victoria to Hobart, Tasmania marginally overran the destination runway after aquaplaning during the daylight landing roll in normal ground visibility.

B738, Jacksonville FL USA, 2019 On 3 May 2019, a Boeing 737-800 significantly overran the wet landing runway at Jacksonville Naval Air Station at night when braking action was less than expected and ended up in shallow tidal water. The Investigation found that although the approach involved had been unstabilised and made with a significant tailwind and with only a single thrust reverser available, these factors had not been the cause of the overrun which was entirely attributable to attempting to complete a landing after touching down on a wet runway during heavy rain in conditions which then led to viscous aquaplaning.

B738, Katowice Poland, 2007 On 28 October 2007, a Boeing 737-800 under the command of a Training Captain occupying the supernumerary crew seat touched down off an ILS Cat 1 approach 870 metres short of the runway at Katowice in fog at night with the AP still engaged. The somewhat protracted investigation did not lead to a Final Report until over 10 years later. This attributed the accident to crew failure to discontinue an obviously unstable approach and it being flown with RVR below the applicable minima. The fact that the commander was not seated at the controls was noted with concern.

B738, Kingston Jamaica, 2009 On 22 December 2009, the flight crew of an American Airlines Boeing 737-800 made a long landing at Kingston at night in heavy rain and with a significant tailwind component and their aircraft overran the end of the runway at speed and was destroyed beyond repair. There was no post-crash fire and no fatalities, but serious injuries were sustained by 14 of the 154 occupants. The accident was attributed almost entirely to various actions and inactions of the crew. Damage to the aircraft after the overrun was exacerbated by the absence of a RESA.

B738, Knock Ireland, 2009 On 19 October 2009, a Boeing 737-300 being operated by British Midland subsidiary bmibaby on a scheduled passenger flight from Knock (also more recently known as  Ireland West ) to Manchester encountered a large flock of medium-sized birds during rotation for take off in normal day visibility and engine malfunction followed. Increasing engine vibration during the climb led to the decision to divert to Shannon, which was completed without further event. There were no injuries to the 133 occupants or anyone on the ground.

B738, Limoges France, 2008 On 21 March 2008, a Boeing 737-800 being operated by Ryanair on a scheduled passenger flight from Charleroi, Belgium to Limoges carried out a daylight approach at destination followed by a landing in normal ground visibility but during heavy rain and with a strong crosswind which ended with a 50 metre overrun into mud. None of the 181 occupants were injured but both engines were damaged by ingestion of debris.

B738, Lisbon Portugal, 2021 On 3 March 2021, a Boeing 737-800 departing Lisbon only just became airborne before the end of runway 21 and was likely to have overrun the runway in the event of a high speed rejected takeoff. After a significant reporting delay, the Investigation established that both pilots had calculated takeoff performance using the full runway length and then performed takeoff from an intersection after failing to identify their error before FMS entry or increase thrust to TOGA as the runway end was evidently about to be reached. 

B738, London Gatwick UK, 2020 On 28 February 2020, a Boeing 737-800 taking off from the full length of the London Gatwick main runway, which is in excess of 3000 metres long, was observed to get airborne only 120 metres before the end of the paved surface. The Investigation found that the crew response when the automatic V1 and VR calls did not occur was unduly delayed with rotation only occurring at a much higher than normal speed. No system fault was subsequently found and it was concluded that the crew had most likely omitted to input these speeds to the FMC after calculation.

B738, London Stansted UK, 2008 On 13 November 2008, a Boeing 737-800 with an unserviceable APU was being operated by Ryanair on a passenger flight at night was in collision with a tug after a cross-bleed engine start procedure was initiated prior to the completion of a complex aircraft pushback in rain. As the power was increased on the No 1 engine in preparation for the No 2 engine start, the resulting increase in thrust was greater than the counter-force provided by the tug and the aircraft started to move forwards. The towbar attachment failed and subsequently the aircraft s No 1 engine impacted the side of the tug, prior to the aircraft brakes being applied.

B738, Lyon France, 2009 On 29 August 2009, an Air Algérie Boeing B737-800 departed the side of the runway during take off but then regained the paved surface after sustaining damage from obstructions, completed the take off without further event and continued to destination. Damage to one of the engines, to tyres and to two lights was discovered at the destination. ATC remained unaware of the excursion until the Operator asked its representative at Lyon to ask the airport to carry out a runway inspection.

B738, Lyon Saint-Exupéry France, 2019 On 14 November 2019, a Boeing 737 was instructed to stop its takeoff whilst still at low speed when the controller saw snow clearance vehicles entering the runway ahead. The Investigation found that the vehicle group had been cleared to enter the active runway by the ground controller without any coordination with the tower controller and that only the monitoring of surface movement radar and the external environment visually had removed the risk of a more serious consequence arising from the incursion. The airport operator’s snow response plan was not specific to their airport and consequently of limited practical value.

B738, Manchester UK, 2003 On 16 July 2003, a Boeing 737-800, being operated by Excel Airlines on a passenger flight from Manchester to Kos began take off on Runway 06L without the flight crew being aware of work in progress at far end of the runway. The take off calculations, based on the full runway length resulted in the aircraft passing within 56 ft of a 14 ft high vehicle just after take off.

B738, Mangalore India, 2010 On 22 May 2010, an Air India Express Boeing 737-800 overran the landing runway at Mangalore when attempting a go around after thrust reverser deployment following a fast and late touchdown off an unstable approach. Almost all of the 166 occupants were killed when control was lost and the aircraft crashed into a ravine off the end of the runway. It was noted a relevant factor in respect of the approach, landing and failed go around attempt was probably the effect of  sleep inertia on the Captain s performance and judgement after a prolonged sleep en-route

B738, Mangalore India, 2012 On 14 August 2012, a Boeing 737-800 crew continued a previously stable ILS Cat 1 approach below the prescribed MDA without having acquired the prescribed visual reference. The aircraft was then damaged by a high rate of descent at the initial touchdown in the undershoot in fog. The occurrence was not reported by either the crew or the attending licensed engineer who discovered consequent damage to the aircraft. Dense fog had prevented ATC visual awareness. The Investigation attributed the undershoot to violation of minima and to both pilots looking out for visual reference leaving the flight instruments unmonitored.

B738, Manila Philippines, 2018 On 16 August 2018, a Boeing 737-800 made a stabilised approach to Manila during a thunderstorm with intermittent heavy rain but the crew lost adequate visual reference as they arrived over the runway. After a drift sideways across the 60 metre-wide landing runway, a veer off occurred and was immediately followed by a damaging collision with obstructions not compliant with prevailing airport safety standards. The Investigation found that the Captain had ignored go around calls from the First Officer and determined that the corresponding aircraft operator procedures were inadequate as well as faulting significant omissions in the Captain s approach brief.

B738, Mildura VIC Australia, 2013 On 18 June 2013, a Boeing 737-800 crew en route to Adelaide encountered un-forecast below-minima weather conditions on arrival there and decided to divert to their designated alternate, Mildura, approximately 220nm away where both the weather report and forecast were much better. However, on arrival there, an un-forecast rapid deterioration to thick fog had occurred with insufficient fuel to go anywhere else. The only available approach was flown, but despite exceeding the minimum altitude by 260 feet, no visual reference was obtained. A further approach with the reported overcast 100 feet agl and visibility 200 metres was continued to a landing.

B738, Mumbai India, 2018 On 10 July 2018, a Boeing 737-800 marginally overran the wet landing runway at Mumbai after the no 1 engine thrust reverser failed to deploy when full reverse was selected after a late touchdown following a stabilised ILS approach. The Investigation found that the overrun was the result of touchdown with almost 40% of the runway behind the aircraft followed by the failure of normal thrust reverser deployment when attempted due to a failed actuator in one of the reversers. The prevailing moderate rain and the likelihood that dynamic aquaplaning had occurred were identified as contributory.

B738, Naha Japan, 2007 On 20 August 2007, as a Boeing 737-800 being operated by China Airlines on a scheduled passenger flight arrived on the designated nose-in parking stand at destination Naha, Japan in daylight and normal visibility, fuel began to leak from the right wing near to the engine pod and ignited. An evacuation was quickly initiated and all 165 occupants including 8 crew members were able to leave the aircraft before it was engulfed by the fire, which spread rapidly and led to the destruction of the aircraft and major damage to the apron surface. As the stand was not adjacent to the terminal and not served by an air bridge, there was no damage to structures. All occupants had left the aircraft before the Airport RFFS arrived at the scene.

B738, Newcastle UK, 2010 On 25 November 2010, a Boeing 737-800 being operated by Thompson Airways on a passenger fight from Arrecife, Lanzarote to Newcastle UK marginally overran Runway 07 at destination onto the paved stopway during a night landing in normal ground visibility. None of the 197 occupants were injured and the aircraft was undamaged. Passengers were disembarked to buses for transport to the terminal. An acceptable disposition of frozen deposits had been advised as present on the runway prior to the approach after a sweeping operation had been conducted following a discontinued approach ten minutes earlier because of advice from ATC that the runway was contaminated with wet snow.

B738, Nuremburg Germany, 2010 On 8 January 2010, an Air Berlin Boeing 737-800 attempted to commence a rolling take off at Nuremburg on a runway pre-advised as having only  medium braking action. Whilst attempting to position the aircraft on the runway centreline, directional control was lost and the aircraft exited the paved surface onto soft ground at low speed before the flight crew were able to stop it. The event was attributed to the inappropriately high taxi speed onto the runway and subsequent attempt to conduct a rolling take off. Relevant Company standard operating procedures were found to be deficient.

B738, Odesa Ukraine, 2019 On 21 November 2019, with variable cross/tailwind components prevailing, a Boeing 737-800 went around from its first ILS approach to Odesa before successfully touching down from its second. It then initially veered left off the runway before regaining it after around 550 metres with two of the three landing gear legs collapsed. An emergency evacuation followed once stopped. The Investigation attributed the excursion to inappropriate directional control inputs just before but especially after touchdown, particularly a large and rapid nosewheel steering input at 130 knots which made a skid inevitable. Impact damage was also caused to runway and taxiway lighting.

B738, Oslo Gardermoen Norway, 2005 On a 23 October, 2005 a Boeing 737-800 operated by Pegasus Airlines, during night time, commenced a take-off roll on a parallel taxiway at Oslo Airport Gardermoen. The aircraft was observed by ATC and stop instruction was issued resulting in moderate speed rejected take-off (RTO).

B738, Pardubice Czech Republic, 2013 On 25 August 2013, the type-experienced crew of a Boeing 737-800 operating with one thrust reverser locked out made a late touchdown with a significant but allowable tail wind component present and overran the end of the runway at Pardubice onto grass at 51 knots. No damage was caused to the aircraft and no emergency evacuation was performed. The Investigation concluded that the aircraft had been configured so that even for a touchdown within the TDZ, there would have been insufficient landing distance available. The flight crew were found not to have followed a number of applicable operating procedures.

B738, Paris CDG France, 2008 On 16 August 2008, an AMC Airlines Boeing 737-800 inadvertently began a night take off from an intersection on runway 27L at Paris CDG which left insufficient take off distance available before the end of the temporarily restricted runway length. It collided with and damaged obstructions related to construction works in progress on the closed section of the runway but sustained only minor damage and completed the intended flight to Luxor. The context for the flight crew error was identified as inadequate support from the Operator and inadequate airport risk assessment for operations with a reduced runway length.

B738, Perth Australia, 2008 On 9 May 2008, a Boeing 737-800 made a low go around at Perth in good daylight visibility after not approaching with regard to the temporarily displaced runway threshold. A second approach was similarly flown and, having observed a likely landing on the closed runway section, ATC instructed a go around. However, instead, the aircraft flew level at a low height over the closed runway section before eventually touching down just beyond the displaced threshold. The Investigation found that runway closure markings required in Australia were contrary to ICAO Recommendations and not conducive to easy recognition when on final approach.

B738, Perth Western Australia, 2010 On 24 February 2010, a Garuda Boeing 737-800 misunderstood the runway exit instruction issued during their landing roll at Perth and turned onto an intersecting active runway. An expeditious exit from this runway followed and no actual conflict resulted. The phraseology used by air traffic control was open to incorrect interpretation by the flight crew and led to their premature turn off the landing runway despite a prior briefing on exit options.

B738, Prestwick UK, 2009 On 23 December 2009, a Boeing 737-800 being operated by Irish airline Ryanair on a scheduled passenger flight from Dublin to Prestwick left the end of the destination runway in normal daylight visibility and the landing gear sunk into the adjacent wet grass after an attempt to brake on the icy surface prior to turning onto the designated exit taxiway was unsuccessful. The occupants left the aircraft via the forward airstairs onto the grass and then moved across to the paved surface of the taxiway and runway.

B738, Pristina Kosovo, 2016 On 2 May 2016, a Boeing 737-800 veered off the 2,500 metre-long landing runway near its end at speed following a night non-precision approach flown by the Captain. It then stopped on grass having sustained damage to both the left engine and landing gear. The Investigation noted that a significant but allowable tailwind component had been present at touchdown and found that the approach had been unstable, the approach and touchdown speeds excessive and that touchdown had occurred beyond the touchdown zone after applicable operating procedures had been comprehensively ignored in the presence of a steep authority and experience gradient.

B738, Rome Ciampino Italy, 2008 On 10 November 2008, a Boeing 737-800 about to land at Rome Ciampino Airport flew through a large and dense flock of starlings, which appeared from below the aircraft. After the crew had made an unsuccessful attempt to go around, they lost control due to malfunction of both engines when full thrust was applied and a very hard impact half way along the runway caused substantial damage to the aircraft. The Investigation concluded that the Captain s decision to attempt a go around after the encounter was inappropriate and that bird risk management measures at the airport had been inadequate.

B738, Rostov-on-Don Russia, 2016 On 19 March 2016, a Boeing 737-800 making a second night ILS approach to Rostov-on-Don failed to complete a go around commenced after becoming unstable in turbulent conditions and crashed at high speed within the airport perimeter killing all 62 people on board. The Investigation concluded that the Captain had lost spatial awareness and then failed to configure the aircraft correctly or control its flightpath as intended and that although the First Officer had recognised this, he had tried to coach the Captain rather than take over. It was noted that the flight up to this point had been conducted normally.

B738, Rotterdam Netherlands, 2003 On 12 January 2003, a Boeing 737-800 being operated by Dutch airline Transavia on a passenger charter flight initially going from Rotterdam to Maastrict-Aachen was obliged to reject its take off on Runway 24 at Rotterdam after it pitched nose-up just after take-off thrust had been selected. The pitch up movement only stopped when the aft fuselage and the tailskid assembly contacted the runway and only when the flight crew rejected the take-off did the aircraft nose gear regain ground contact. The aircraft was damaged and unfit for flight but able to taxi back to the terminal to allow the uninjured passengers to disembark.

B738, Singapore, 2015 On 6 December 2015, a Boeing 737-800 was being manoeuvred by tug from its departure gate at Singapore to the position where it was permitted to commence taxiing under its own power when the tug lost control of the aircraft, the tow bar broke and the two collided. The Investigation attributed the collision to the way the tug was used and concluded that the thrust during and following engine start was not a contributory factor. Some inconsistency was found between procedures for push back of loaded in-service aircraft promulgated by the airline, its ground handling contractor and the airport operator.

B738, Sint Maarten Eastern Caribbean, 2017 On 7 March 2017, a Boeing 737-800 crew making a daylight non-precision approach at Sint Maarten continued it without having established the required visual reference to continue beyond the missed approach point and then only realised that they had visually  identified a building as the runway when visibility ahead suddenly improved. At this point the approach ground track was corrected but the premature descent which had inadvertently been allowed to occur was not noticed and only after the second of two EGPWS Alerts was a go-around initiated at 40 feet above the sea.

B738, Sochi Russia, 2018 On 1 September 2018, a Boeing 737-800, making its second night approach to Sochi beneath a large convective storm with low level windshear reported, floated almost halfway along the wet runway before overrunning it by approximately 400 metres and breaching the perimeter fence before stopping. A small fire did not prevent all occupants from safely evacuating. The Investigation attributed the accident to crew disregard of a number of windshear warnings and a subsequent encounter with horizontal windshear resulting in a late touchdown and noted that the first approach had meant that the crew had been poorly prepared for the second.

B738, Stuttgart Germany, 2005 On 23 April 2005, a Boeing 737-800 being operated by Turkish charter airline Sky Air on a passenger flight from Stuttgart to Dusseldorf tipped onto its tail when take off thrust was applied for the intended departure from Runway 25 in normal day visibility. The attempt to take off was immediately abandoned and the aircraft towed back to the gate for the 100 passengers to disembark. One of the cabin crew was slightly injured and the aircraft was  severely damaged .

B738, Surat India, 2014 On 6 November 2014, a Boeing 737-800 taking off at night from Surat hit an object as it was approaching 80 knots and the take-off was immediately rejected. On return to the gate substantial damage was found to the left engine and a runway inspection found one dead buffalo and another live one. The runway was reopened after removal of the carcass but the live buffalo was not removed and was seen again by the runway the following day. The Investigation found a history of inadequate perimeter fencing and inadequate runway inspection practices at the airport.

B738, Sydney Australia, 2007 On 14 July 2007, a Boeing 737-800 being operated by New Zealand airline Polynesian Blue on a scheduled passenger service from Sydney to Christchurch New Zealand commenced take off on Runway 16R with asymmetric thrust set and veered off the side of the runway reaching the intersecting runway 07 before rejected take off action initiated by the flight crew took effect and the aircraft came to a stop.

B738, vicinity Aberdeen UK, 2021 On 11 September 2021, a Boeing 737-800 was instructed to discontinue an ILS approach to runway 34 at Aberdeen, climb to 3000 feet and turn left onto a westerly heading. With the Autopilot disconnected it approached the cleared altitude but before reaching it rapidly descended to just over 1500 feet above terrain before climbing away, the whole event occurring in IMC. The episode was attributed to crew overload in manual flight consequent upon the combination of the heading instructions, flap configuration changes and a complete absence of pitch trim. Both pilots’ pandemic-related lack of the usual operational recency was noted.

B738, vicinity Amsterdam Netherlands, 2009 On 25 February 2009, a Boeing 737-800 crew making an automatic ILS approach to Amsterdam with the operating First Officer undergoing early stage line training and a Safety Pilot occupying the supernumerary crew seat lost control after a malfunction of one of the radio altimeters, which resulted in the autothrottle unexpectedly setting idle thrust. The resultant progressive pitch increase went unnoticed by any of the pilots until an EGPWS ‘PULL UP’ Warning occurred. A delayed response then prevented recovery and terrain impact followed with the aircraft wrecked but with no post crash fire and only nine fatalities amongst the 135 occupants.

B738, vicinity Bergerac France, 2015 On 29 January 2015, a Boeing 737-800 crew attempting to fly an NDB approach to Bergerac, with prior awareness that it would be necessary because of pre-notified ILS and DME unavailability, descended below 800 feet agl in IMC until an almost 1000 feet per minute descent when still over 8 nm from the runway threshold triggered an EGPWS ‘TERRAIN PULL UP’ warning and the simultaneous initiation of a go-around. The Investigation found that the PF First Officer was unfamiliar with NDB approaches but had not advised the Captain which resulted in confusion and loss of situational awareness by both pilots.

B738, vicinity Bristol UK, 2019 On 1 June 2019, a Boeing 737-800 was instructed to go around after it was observed to be significantly below the vertical profile for its RNAV approach as it reached the procedure minimum descent altitude. Having then climbed less than 300 feet, the aircraft began to descend, reaching 457 feet agl before resuming its climb. The Investigation found that the terrain proximity on approach followed a failure to discontinue a comprehensively unstable approach and the terrain proximity episode during the go around was due to continued following of the Flight Director which was providing guidance based on incorrect mode selections.

B738, vicinity Christchurch New Zealand, 2011 On 29 October 2011, a Boeing 737-800 on approach to Christchurch during the 68 year-old aircraft commander's annual route check as 'Pilot Flying' continued significantly below the applicable ILS minima without any intervention by the other pilots present before the approach lights became visible and an uneventful touchdown occurred. The Investigation concluded that the commander had compromised the safety of the flight but found no evidence to suggest that age was a factor in his performance. A Safety Recommendation was made to the Regulator concerning the importance of effective management of pilot check flights.

B738, vicinity Chuuk Micronesia, 2018 On 28 September 2018, a Boeing 737-800 was flown into the sea short of the intended landing runway at Chuuk during a non-precision approach which was continued below MDA without having obtained the required visual reference. The Investigation found that the Captain s approach had become unstable soon after autopilot disconnection and an excessive rate of descent had taken the aircraft below the indicated glideslope and below MDA despite multiple EGPWS  Sink Rate aural Alerts and a visual-only  PULL UP Warning with impact following 22 seconds after passing MDA. The absence of an aural  PULL UP Warning was considered significant.

B738, vicinity Cork Ireland, 2006 On 4 June 2006, a Boeing 737-800 being operated by Ryanair on a passenger flight from London Stansted to Cork became too high to land off a day visual approach and requested a right hand orbit to reposition. This positioning was flown too close to terrain with TAWS alert triggered prior to a second approach to a successful landing.

B738, vicinity Denpasar Bali Indonesia, 2013 On 13 April 2013, a Lion Air Boeing 737-800 flew a day non precision approach to runway 09 at Bali (Denpasar) and continued when the required visual reference was lost below MDA. Despite continued absence of visual reference, the approach was continued until the EGPWS annunciation 'TWENTY', when the aircraft commander called a go around. Almost immediately, the aircraft hit the sea surface to the right of the undershoot area and broke up. All 108 occupants were rescued with only four sustaining serious injury. The Investigation attributed the accident entirely to the actions and inactions of the two pilots.

B738, vicinity Douala Cameroon, 2007 On 5 May 2007, a Kenya Airways Boeing 737-800 departing Douala at night crashed shortly after take-off following an unsuccessful attempt at recovery after late recognition of a progressive right roll which led to spiral dive. The Investigation was unable to positively establish the reason for the unintended roll, but noted that it ad not been possible to determine whether the pilots, and in particular the aircraft commander, had been aware of the fact that the AP was not engaged.

B738, vicinity Eindhoven Netherlands, 2013 On 31 May 2013, a Boeing 737-800 (EI-ENL) being operated by Ryanair on a scheduled international passenger flight from Palma del Mallorca to Eindhoven as FR3531 was established on the ILS LOC in day IMC with the AP and A/T engaged and APP mode selected but above the GS, when the aircraft suddenly pitched up and stick shaker activation occurred. After a sudden loss of airspeed, the crew recovered control manually and the subsequent approach was completed without further event.

B738, vicinity Faro Portugal, 2011 On 24 October 2011, the crew of a Ryanair Boeing 737-800 operating the first flight after an unexpectedly severe overnight storm found that after take off, an extremely large amount of rudder trim was required to fly ahead. Following an uneventful return to land, previously undetected damage to the rudder assembly was found which was attributed to the effects of the storm. It was found that pre flight checks required at the time could not have detected the damage and noted that the wind speeds which occurred were much higher than those anticipated by the applicable certification requirements.

B738, vicinity Hyakuri Japan, 2019 On 22 August 2019, a Boeing 737-800 positioning visually from downwind after accepting clearance to make an approach to and landing on runway 03L at Hyakuri instead lined up on temporarily closed runway 03R and did not commence a go around until around 100 feet agl after seeing a vehicle on the runway and the painted runway threshold identification. The Investigation concluded that the event occurred due to the captain not thoroughly performing the visual recognition of runway, and the FO not adequately monitoring the flight status of the aircraft thus failing to correct the runway misidentification made by the Captain.

B738, vicinity Kittilä, Finland 2012 On 26 December 2012, a Boeing 737-800 experienced an uncommanded pitch up in IMC when intercepting the ILS GS at Kittilä. Initial crew response could not prevent a rapid transition to a very high nose up attitude and stick shaker activation occurred. Recovery from this upset was eventually achieved. The Investigation found that frozen de icing fluid had prevented three of the four input cranks for both elevator PCUs from functioning normally. It also concluded that, notwithstanding new de-icing procedures introduced by Boeing since the occurrence, the current aircraft type certification for all 737 variants may be unsound.

B738, vicinity Lanzarote Spain, 2019 On 25 March 2019, a Boeing 737-800 making a non-precision daylight approach to Lanzarote with line training in progress began descending below the correct approach profile shortly after visual acquisition of the runway at 10nm when a much lower altitude than specified was maintained, EGPWS ‘CAUTION TERRAIN’ and ‘TERRAIN PULL UP’ activations eventually followed. With the terrain below clearly visible, the autopilot and autothrottle were disconnected and the aircraft flown level until the correct profile was regained after which the flight was then completed without further event. The Investigation made no findings which would fully explain the procedural non-compliance involved.

B738, vicinity London Stansted UK, 2011 On 13 March 2011, a Turkish Airlines Boeing 737-800 stopped climb shortly after take off after misreading the SID chart. After levelling at 450 feet agl, it continued following the lateral part of the SID only until ATC re-iterated the requirement to climb after resolving a temporary loss of contact due to an un-instructed premature frequency change. It was found that the crew had received but apparently not responded to an EGPWS  PULL UP Warning. It was concluded that there was an opportunity to improve the clarity of UK SID charts to aid pilots with limited English language skills.

B738, vicinity Memmingen Germany, 2012 On 23 September 2012 a Ryanair Boeing 737-800 made a premature descent to 450 feet agl in day VMC whilst turning right onto visual finals for runway 24 at Memmingen after the FMS selected altitude had been set to a figure only 44 feet above runway threshold elevation of 2052 feet amsl. EGPWS Alerts of  Sink Rate and  Caution Terrain prompted initiation of a go around which, as it was initiated, was accompanied by a an EGPWS  TERRAIN PULL UP warning. The go around and a second successful approach to runway 24 were uneventful. The Investigation is not yet complete.

B738, vicinity Paris Orly France, 2018 On 7 February 2018, a Boeing 737-800 experienced an airspeed mismatch during takeoff on a post maintenance positioning flight but having identified the faulty system by reference to the standby instrumentation, the intended flight was completed without further event. After the recorded defect was then signed off as “no fault found” after a failure to follow the applicable fault-finding procedure, the same happened on the next (revenue) flight but with an air turnback made. The Investigation found that the faulty sensor had been fitted at build three earlier with a contaminated component which had slowly caused sensor malfunction to develop.

B738, vicinity Porto Portugal, 2015 On 5 September 2015, a Boeing 737-800 was about to commence descent on a non-precision final approach at Porto in VMC when a green laser was directed at the aircraft. The Pilot Flying responded rapidly by shielding his eyes and was unaffected but the other pilot looked up, sustained flash blindness and crew coordination was compromised. Subsequently, the approach became unstable and a go around to an uneventful approach to the reciprocal runway direction was completed. The subsequent Investigation noted the use of increasingly powerful green lasers in this way and that such use was not contrary to Portuguese law.

B738, vicinity Skavsta Sweden, 2004 On 2 July 2004, a Boeing 737-800 being operated by Irish operator Ryanair on a scheduled passenger flight from London Stansted to Skavsta Sweden, completed an extremely high speed and unstable approach in day VMC to destination during which relevant Operator SOPs were comprehensively ignored, EGPWS warnings were not actioned and AFM limits for trailing edge flap deployment were breached. Despite this, a landing at excessive speed was accommodated by just within the full length of the 2878 metre long dry runway.

B738, vicinity Tehran Iran, 2020 On 8 January 2020, a Boeing 737-800 was destroyed by a ground to air missile when climbing through approximately 4800 feet aal three minutes after takeoff from Tehran for Kiev and its 176 occupants were killed. The Investigation is continuing but it has been confirmed that severe damage and an airborne fire followed the detonation of a proximity missile after a military targeting error, with subsequent ground impact. It is also confirmed that the flight was following its ATC clearance and that a sequence of four separate errors led to two missiles being fired at the aircraft.

B738, vicinity Trivandrum India, 2015 On 18 August 2015, a Boeing 737-800 made three unsuccessful ILS approaches at Cochin around dawn then diverted to Trivandrum where a day VOR approach was unsuccessful and a MAYDAY was declared due low fuel. Two further supposedly visual approaches were attempted there before a third such visual approach - which involved ignoring EGPWS PULL UP Warnings in IMC - was followed by a successful landing with 349kg fuel remaining. The Investigation found that aircraft safety had been jeopardised and that Cochin ATC had not communicated information on the deteriorating weather at Trivandrum. Relevant operator procedures were considered as inadequate.

B738/A319 en-route, south east of Zurich Switzerland, 2013 On 12 April 2013, a Ryanair Boeing 737-800 took a climb clearance intended for another Ryanair aircraft on the same frequency. The aircraft for which the clearance was intended did not respond and the controller did not notice that the clearance readback had come from a different aircraft. Once the wrong aircraft began to climb, from FL360 to FL380, a TCAS RA to descend occurred due to traffic just transferred to a different frequency and at FL370. That traffic received a TCAS RA to climb. STCA was activated at the ATS Unit controlling both Ryanair aircraft.

B738/A321, Prague Czech Republic, 2010 On 18 June 2010 a Sun Express Boeing 737-800 taxiing for a full length daylight departure from runway 06 at Prague was in collision with an Airbus 321 which was waiting on a link taxiway leading to an intermediate take off position on the same runway. The aircraft sustained damage to their right winglet and left horizontal stabiliser respectively and both needed subsequent repair before being released to service.

B738/B734, Johannesburg South Africa, 2010 On 27 July 2010, a South African Airways Boeing 737-800 on take from Runway 21R was instructed to reject that take off when already at high speed because a Boeing 737-400 was crossing the same runway ahead. The rejected take off was successful. The Investigation found that both aircraft had been operated in accordance with clearances issued by the responsible position in TWR ATC where OJT was in progress.

B738/B738, Girona Spain, 2010 On 14 January 2010, two Ryanair Boeing 737-800 aircraft were operating scheduled passenger flights from Girona to Las Palmas and Turin respectively and had taxied from adjacent gates at Girona in normal day visibility in quick succession. The Turin-bound aircraft taxied first but because it was early at the holding point for its CTOT, the other aircraft was designated first for take off and during the overtaking manoeuvre in the holding area, the wing tip of the moving Las Palmas aircraft hit the horizontal stabiliser of the Turin bound aircraft causing minor and substantial damage to the respective aircraft. None of the respective 81 and 77 occupants were injured and both aircraft taxied back to their gates.

B738/B738, vicinity Oslo Norway, 2012 On 31 October 2012, a Boeing 737-800 on go around after delaying the breaking off of a fast and high unstable ILS approach at Oslo lost separation in IMC against another aircraft of the same type and Operator which had just taken off from the same runway as the landing was intended to be made on. The situation was aggravated by both aircraft responding to a de-confliction turn given to the aircraft on go around. Minimum separation was 0.2nm horizontally when 500 feet apart vertically, both climbing. Standard missed approach and departure tracks were the same.

B738/B738, vicinity Queenstown New Zealand, 2010 On 20 June 2010, a Boeing 737-800 being operated by New Zealand company Pacific Blue AL on a scheduled passenger flight from Auckland to Queenstown lost IFR separation assurance against a Boeing 737-800 being operated by Qantas on a scheduled passenger flight from Sydney to Queenstown whilst both aircraft were flying a go around following successive but different instrument approaches at their shared intended destination. There were no abrupt manoeuvres and none of the respectively 88 and 162 occupants of the two aircraft were injured.

B738/B763, Barcelona Spain, 2011 On 14 April 2011, a Ryanair Boeing 737-800 failed to leave sufficient clearance when taxiing behind a stationary Boeing 767-300 at Barcelona and the 737 wingtip was in collision with the horizontal stabiliser of the 767, damaging both. The 767 crew were completely unaware of any impact but the 737 crew realised the  close proximity but dismissed a cabin crew report that a passenger had observed a collision. Both aircraft completed their intended flights without incident after which the damage was discovered, that to the 767 requiring that the aircraft be repaired before further flight.

B739, Akita Japan, 2007 On 6 January 2007, a Boeing B737-900 operated by Korean Airlines landed at Akita Airport on a taxiway parallel to the in-use runway after a daylight non-precision approach (NPA) using a head-up display (HUD). The crew realised their error during the landing roll.

B739, en-route, east of Denver CO USA, 2012 On 31 July 2012, a Boeing 737-900 struck a single large bird whilst descending to land at Denver in day VMC and passing approximately 6000 feet aal, sustaining damage to the radome, one pitot head and the vertical stabiliser. The flight crew declared an emergency and continued the approach with ATC assistance to an uneventful landing. The bird involved was subsequently identified as a White Faced Ibis, a species which normally has a weight around 500 gm but can exceptionally reach a weight of 700 gm. The hole made in the radome was 60 cm x 30 cm.

B739, Kathmandu Nepal, 2018 On 19 April 2018, a Boeing 737-900 made a high speed rejected takeoff at Kathmandu in response to a configuration warning and overran the runway without serious consequences. The Investigation found that when a false Takeoff Configuration Warning caused by an out of adjustment switch had been annunciated just after V1, the Captain had decided to reject the takeoff because of concerns about the local terrain and locally adverse weather. It was noted that the aircraft operator did not provide criteria for rejecting takeoff up to or above the 80 knot crosscheck but that the Boeing reference QRH did so.

B739, Paris CDG France, 2019 On 27 October 2019, an under-floor hold fire warning was annunciated in the flight deck of a Boeing 737-900 which had been pushed back at Paris CDG and was about to begin taxiing. Since there were no signs of fire in the passenger cabin or during an emergency services external inspection, a non-emergency disembarkation of all occupants was made. The hold concerned was then opened and fire damage sourced to the overheated lithium battery in a passenger wheelchair was discovered. The Investigation identified a number of weaknesses in both the applicable loading procedures and compliance with the ones in place.

B739, Pekanbaru Indonesia, 2011 On 14 February 2011, a Lion Air Boeing 737-900 making a night landing at Pekanbaru overran the end of the 2240 metre long runway onto the stopway after initially normal deceleration largely attributable to the thrust reversers was followed by a poor response to applied maximum braking in the final 300 metres. Whilst performance calculations showed that a stop on the runway should have been possible, it was concluded that a combination of water patches with heavy rubber contamination had reduced the friction properties of the surface towards the end of the runway and hence the effectiveness of brake application.

B739, Singapore, 2013 On 26 May 2013, about 20 minutes after arrival at Singapore for a turn round expected to last about an hour and with crew members on board, a Boeing 737-900 was suddenly rotated approximately 30 degrees about its main gear by a relatively modest wind gust and damaged by consequent impacts. The Investigation concluded that the movement had been due to the failure to follow manufacturer's guidance on both adequate chocking of the aircraft wheels and the order of hold loading. It was found that the Operator had not ensured that its ground handling agent at Singapore was properly instructed.

B739, vicinity Atlanta GA USA, 2017 On 29 November 2017, a Boeing 737-900 on an ILS approach at Atlanta became unstable after the autothrottle and autopilot were both disconnected and was erroneously aligned with an occupied taxiway parallel to the intended landing runway. A go-around was not commenced until the aircraft was 50 feet above the ground after which it passed low over another aircraft on the taxiway. The Investigation found that the Captain had not called for a go around until well below the Decision Altitude and had then failed to promptly take control when the First Officer was slow to begin climbing the aircraft.

B739, Yogyakarta Indonesia, 2015 On 6 November 2015, a Boeing 737-900 overran the 2,200 metre-long landing runway at Yogyakarta after a tailwind approach with airspeed significantly above the applicable Vref followed by a long landing on a wet runway without optimum use of deceleration devices. The flight crew management of the situation once the aircraft had come to a stop was contrary to procedures in a number of important respects. The aircraft operator took extensive action to improve crew performance following the event. The Investigation found significant fault with the airport operator's awareness of runway surface condition and an absence of related significant risk management.

B741, en-route, East Moriches NY USA, 1996 On 17 July 1996, a Boeing 747, operated by TWA, experienced an in-flight breakup and then crashed into the Atlantic Ocean near East Moriches, New York, USA.

B741, en-route, Gunma Japan 1985 On August 12, 1985 a Boeing 747 SR-100 operated by Japan Air Lines experienced a loss of control attributed to loss of the vertical stabiliser. After the declaration of the emergency, the aircraft continued its flight for 30 minutes and subsequently impacted terrain in a mountainous area in Gunma Prefecture, Japan.

B741, en-route, Pacific Ocean, 1997 On 28th December 1997, a Boeing 747-100 being operated by United Airlines, which had departed from Tokyo for Hawaii, encountered severe turbulence thought to have been associated with a Jet Stream over the Pacific Ocean.

B741, vicinity London Heathrow UK, 1997 On 6 December 1997, a British Airways Boeing 747-100, departing from London Heathrow airport, had an engine bird strike just after take off, causing substantial damage and falling debris.

B742 / A320, Frankfurt Germany, 2006 On 12 January 2006, an Air China Boeing 747-200 which had just landed at Frankfurt failed to correctly understand and read back its taxi in clearance and the incorrect readback was not detected by the controller. The 747 then crossed another runway at night and in normal visibility whilst an A320 was landing on it. The A320 responded by increased braking and there was consequently no actual risk of collision. The controller had not noticed the incursion and, in accordance with instructions, all stop bars were unlit and the RIMCAS had been officially disabled due to too many nuisance activations.

B742 / B741, Tenerife Canary Islands Spain, 1977 On 27 March 1977, a KLM Boeing 747-200 began its low visibility take-off at Tenerife without requesting or receiving take-off clearance and a collision with a Boeing 747-100 backtracking the same runway subsequently occurred. Both aircraft were destroyed by the impact and consequential fire and 583 people died. The Investigation attributed the crash primarily to the actions and inactions of the KLM Captain, who was the Operator's Chief Flying Instructor. Safety Recommendations made emphasised the importance of standard phraseology in all normal radio communications and avoidance of the phrase take-off in ATC Departure Clearances.

B742 / B744, Chicago O'Hare IL USA, 1999 On 1 April 1999, an Air China Boeing 747-200F which had just landed on and cleared runway 14R at Chicago O Hare failed to follow its correctly read back taxi-in clearance and crossed the landing runway at night ahead of a Boeing 747 taking off. The latter rotated abruptly and banked away from the taxiing 747, missing it by an estimated 75 feet. It was found that the Air China aircraft had realised it was going the wrong way but had slowed rather than stopped taxiing with the nose of the aircraft past the runway centreline as it was overflown.

B742, Brussels Belgium, 2008 On 25 May 2008 a Kalitta Air B747-200F, which was departing Brussels on a cargo flight to Bahrain, overran Runway 20 at Brussels Airport, Belgium during a rejected take-off. The aircraft came to a stop 300m beyond the end of runway 20 and broke into three parts. The crew of four and one passenger safely evacuated from the aircraft and suffered only minor injuries.

B742, Düsseldorf Germany, 2005 On 24 January 2005, an Atlas Air Boeing 747-200F overran the end of the landing runway at Düsseldorf after runway braking action notified just prior to landing as medium due to snowfall unexpectedly deteriorated after the snowfall intensified. The overrun led to collision with ground obstacles and engines 2 and 3 caught fire. Escape slide malfunction at the forward left hand door led to an alternative non standard crew evacuation route being used. Significant damage to the aircraft resulted in it being declared a hull loss. The Investigation took almost 8 years to complete and publish.

B742, en-route, Penghu Island Taiwan, 2002 On 25 May 2002, a China Airlines Boeing 747-200 broke up in mid air, over Penghu Island Taiwan, following structural failure as a result of an improper repair in 1980, which had not been detected by subsequent inspections.

B742, en-route, south southeast of Jakarta Indonesia, 1982 On 24 June 1982, a Boeing 747-200 had just passed Jakarta at FL370 in night VMC when it unknowingly entered an ash cloud from a recently begun new eruption of nearby Mount Galunggung which the crew were unaware of. All engines failed in quick succession and a MAYDAY was declared. Involuntary descent began and a provisional diversion back to Jakarta, which would necessitate successful engine restarts to clear mountainous terrain en-route was commenced. Once clear of cloud with three successful engines restarts and level at FL120, the diversion plan was confirmed and completed with a visual approach from the overhead. 

B742, Halifax Canada, 2004 On 14 October 2004, a B742 crashed on take off from Halifax International Airport, Canada, and was destroyed by impact forces and a post-crash fire. The crew had calculated incorrect V speeds and thrust setting using an EFB.

B742, Montreal Canada, 2000 On 23 July 2000, a Boeing 747-200 being operated by Royal Air Maroc on a scheduled passenger flight from New York to Montreal overran the temporarily restricted available landing runway length after the aircraft failed to decelerate sufficiently during a daylight landing with normal on-ground visibility. It struck barriers at the displaced runway end before stopping 215 metres further on. Shortly before it stopped, ATC observed flames coming out of the No. 2 engine and advised the flight crew and alerted the RFFS. However, no sustained fire developed and the aircraft was undamaged except for internal damage to the No 2 engine. No emergency evacuation was deemed necessary by the aircraft commander and there were no occupant or other injuries

B742, Sokoto Nigeria, 2013 On 4 October 2013, a Boeing 747-200 touched down short of the intended landing runway at Sokoto after the Captain opted to reduce track miles by making a direct visual contact approach in dark night calm wind conditions rather than continuing as initially cleared towards an ILS approach in the reciprocal runway direction. The Investigation was hampered by an inoperative FDR and failure to preserve relevant CVR data on the grounded aircraft and concluded that the decision to make a visual approach rather than an ILS approach when the VASI was out of service for both runways was inappropriate.

B742, Stockholm Arlanda Sweden, 2007 On 25 June 2007, a Boeing 747-200F being operated by Cathay Pacific on a scheduled cargo flight from Stockholm to Dubai had completed push back for departure in normal daylight visibility and the parking brakes had been set. The tow vehicle crew had disconnected the tow bar but before they and their vehicle had cleared the vicinity of the aircraft, it began to taxi and collided with the vehicle. The flight crew were unaware of this and continued taxiing for about 150 metres until the flight engineer noticed that the indications from one if the engines were abnormal and the aircraft was taxied back to the gate. The tow vehicle crew and the dispatcher had been able to run clear and were not injured physically injured although all three were identified as suffering minor injury (shock). The aircraft was  substantially damaged and the tow vehicle was  damaged .

B742, vicinity Stansted UK, 1999 On 22 December 1999, a KAL Boeing 747 freighter crashed shortly after take-off from Stansted UK, following an ADI malfunction.

B743, Dhaka Bangladesh, 2008 On 25 March 2008, an Air Atlanta Icelandic Boeing 747-300 was decelerating after landing at Dhaka when a fuel leak in the vicinity of the No 3 engine led to a fire which could not be extinguished. An emergency evacuation was accomplished with only a few minor injuries. The cause of the fuel leak was traced to mis-assembly of a fuel feed line coupling during a  C Check some six months previously. The failure to follow clear AMM instructions for this task in two specific respects was of concern to the Investigating Agency.

B743, vicinity Jeddah Saudia Arabia, 2008 On 5 May 2008, a Saudi Arabian Boeing 747-300 being positioned for maintenance to include investigation of degraded power output from the no 1 GE CF6-50 engine experienced an uncontained failure of the same engine shortly after take off from Jeddah followed by an uneventful air turn back. The failure was attributed to the vulnerability of the engine design to high pressure turbine blade loss.

B743, vicinity Tehran Mehrabad Iran, 2015 On 15 October 2015 a Boeing 747-300 experienced significant vibration from one of the engines almost immediately after take-off from Tehran Mehrabad. After the climb out was continued without reducing the affected engine thrust an uncontained failure followed 3 minutes later. The ejected debris caused the almost simultaneous failure of the No 4 engine, loss of multiple hydraulic systems and all the fuel from one wing tank. The Investigation attributed the vibration to the Operator's continued use of the engine without relevant Airworthiness Directive action and the subsequent failure to continued operation of the engine after its onset.

B743, vicinity Won Guam Airport, Guam, 1997 On 6 August 1997, Korean Air flight 801, a Boeing 747-300, crashed at night at Nimitz Hill, 3 miles southwest of Won Guam International Airport, Agana, Guam while on final approach for runway 6 Left. Of the 254 persons on board, 228 were killed, and 23 passengers and 3 flight attendants survived the accident with serious injuries.

B744 / A306, vicinity London Heathrow UK, 1996 On 15 April 1996 a significant loss of separation occurred when a B744, taking off from runway 27R at London Heathrow came into conflict to the west of Heathrow Airport with an A306 which had carried out a missed approach from the parallel runway 27L. Both aircraft were following ATC instructions. Both aircraft received and correctly followed TCAS RAs, the B744 to descend and the A306 to adjust vertical speed, which were received at the same time as corrective ATC clearances.

B744 / A321, London Heathrow UK, 2004 On 23 March 2004, an out of service British Airways Boeing 747-400, under tow passed behind a stationary Airbus A321-200 being operated by Irish Airline Aer Lingus on a departing scheduled passenger service in good daylight visibility and the wing tip of the 747 impacted and seriously damaged the rudder of the A321. The aircraft under tow was cleared for the towing movement and the A321 was holding position in accordance with clearance. The towing team were not aware of the collision and initially, there was some doubt in the A321 flight deck about the cause of a  shudder felt when the impact occurred but the cabin crew of the A321 had felt the impact shudder and upon noticing the nose of the 747 appearing concluded that it had struck their aircraft. Then the First Officer saw the damaged wing tip of the 747 and informed ATC about the possible impact. Later another aircraft, positioned behind the A321, confirmed the rudder damage. At the time of the collision, the two aircraft involved were on different ATC frequencies.

B744 / A321, vicinity London Heathrow UK, 2000 On 28 April 2000, a British Airways Boeing 747-400 on go around at London Heathrow Airport, UK, had a loss of separation vertically from a British Midland A321 stationary on the runway waiting for take-off.

B744 / A333, Hong Kong China, 2017 On 22 September 2017, a Boeing 747-400F taxiing in after landing requested and received further taxi instructions from GND on reaching its clearance limit when the controller assumed it had already crossed the active runway ahead. An Airbus A330-300 crew beginning takeoff saw the 747 beginning to cross, rejected the takeoff and stopped well clear of the other aircraft. The Investigation found that the GND controller had failed to check which side of the runway the 747 was on before issuing his clearance and noted that the controllable red stop bar system was not active or required to be.

B744 / B763, Melbourne Australia, 2006 On 2 February 2006, a Boeing 747-400 was taxiing for a departure at Melbourne Airport. At the same time, a Boeing 767-300 was stationary on taxiway Echo and waiting in line to depart from runway 16. The left wing tip of the Boeing 747 collided with the right horizontal stabiliser of the Boeing 767 as the first aircraft passed behind. Both aircraft were on scheduled passenger services from Melbourne to Sydney. No one was injured during the incident.

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