Accidents and Incidents
This directory contains articles about particular Accidents and Incidents that are considered illustrative of the contemporary safety issues and recommended potential solutions. The information contained in the article summarising an individual accident or incident is derived from the published official investigation report, which may in each case be found on the SKYbrary bookshelf wherever possible in English as provided by the publishing Investigation Agency. A direct link to each official report is provided at the end of each summary article. The complete list of events is provided on this and the following pages in the order of the ICAO aircraft type designator in alphabetical order.
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Time of Day
Phase of Flight
Air Ground Communication
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Wake Vortex Turbulence
AW Affected System(s)
AW Contributing Factor(s)
Causal Factor Group(s)
B744 / B773 / B773, en-route, Delhi India, 2018 On 22 December 2018, a Boeing 747-400 crew began to climb from FL310 without clearance and prescribed separation was lost against both an opposite direction Boeing 777-300 at FL 320 and another same direction Boeing 777-300 cleared to fly at FL330. The Investigation found that the 747 crew had requested FL 390 and then misunderstood the controller’s response of “level available 350” as a clearance to climb and gave a non-standard response and began to climb when the controller responded instructing the flight to standby for higher. Controller attempts to resolve the resultant ‘current conflict warnings’ were only partially successful.
B744 / MD90, New Chitose Japan, 2008 On 16 February 2008, during daylight and in poor visibility, a Boeing 747-400, operated by Japan Airlines, was holding on a taxiway next to runway 01R of New Chitose Airport, Japan. A Douglas MD-90-30 operated by the same airline landed on the same runway and was still on the runway when the B747 was cleared to line up and wait. Shortly after lineup the B747 began its takeoff roll without receiving such clearance and subsequently was instructed to abort the takeoff. The crew of the B747 successfully rejected the takeoff.
B744 / Vehicle, Luxembourg Airport, Luxembourg 2010 On 21 January 2010, a Cargolux Boeing 747-400F was in collision with an unoccupied van whilst about to touch down on runway 24 at Luxembourg airport in thick fog following a Cat 3b ILS approach. It was subsequently established that a maintenance crew and their vehicle had earlier been cleared to enter the active runway but their presence had then been overlooked. Comprehensive safety recommendations to rectify deficiencies in both ATC procedures and prevailing ATC practices were made by the Investigation.
B744, Bagram Afghanistan, 2013 On 29 April 2013, a Boeing 747-400 freighter departed controlled flight and impacted terrain shortly after taking off from Bagram and was destroyed by the impact and post crash fire and all occupants were killed. The Investigation found that a sudden and significant load shift had occurred soon after take off which damaged hydraulic systems Nos. 1 and 2 and the horizontal stabilizer drive mechanism components as well as moving the centre of gravity aft and out of the allowable flight envelope. The Load shift was attributed to the ineffective securing techniques employed.
B744, Bangkok Thailand, 1999 On 23 September 1999, a Boeing 747-400 being operated by Qantas on a scheduled passenger service from Sydney Australia to Bangkok overran Runway 21L during an attempted night landing in normal visibility and came to a halt substantially intact 320 metres beyond the runway end. There was no fire and a precautionary evacuation of the aircraft was not begun until 20 minutes after it came to rest. Only minor injuries were sustained by 38 of the 410 occupants, some during the initial runway excursion, others as a consequence of the evacuation. The aircraft remained substantially intact during the overrun although the nose landing gear and one main landing gear separated. The picture below, taken from the Official Accident Report, shows the aircraft in its final stopping position.
B744, en-route NNW of Bangkok Thailand, 2008 On 7 January 2008, a Boeing 747-400 being operated by Qantas on a scheduled passenger flight from London Heathrow to Bangkok was descending through FL100 about 13.5 nm NNW of destination in day VMC when indications of progressive electrical systems failure began to be annunciated. As the aircraft neared the end of the radar downwind leg, only the AC4 bus bar was providing AC power and the aircraft main battery was indicating discharge. A manual approach to a normal landing was subsequently accomplished and the aircraft taxied to the designated gate where passenger disembarkation took place. None of the 365 occupants, who included two heavy crew members who were present in the flight deck throughout the incident, had sustained any injury and the aircraft was undamaged.
B744, en-route, East China Sea, 2011 On 28 July 2011, 50 minutes after take off from Incheon, the crew of an Asiana Boeing 747-400F declared an emergency advising a main deck fire and an intention to divert to Jeju. The effects of the rapidly escalating fire eventually made it impossible to retain control and the aircraft crashed into the sea. The Investigation concluded that the origin of the fire was two adjacent pallets towards the rear of the main deck which contained Dangerous Goods shipments including Lithium ion batteries and flammable substances and that the aircraft had broken apart in mid-air following the loss of control.
B744, en-route, north of Anchorage AK USA, 1989 On 15 December 1989, a Boeing 747-400 positioning for a planned en-route stop at Anchorage with crew awareness of a significant volcanic eruption in progress some 150 nm upwind entered volcanic ash during descent north northeast of the airport. When an attempt to climb out of the ash using full thrust was made, all engines failed. After repeated and eventually successful engine restart attempts as a 13,000 feet loss of altitude occurred, the fight was completed. The Report of the comprehensive NTSB Investigation remains unpublished with only a brief factual report containing neither Safety Recommendations nor Safety Actions issued.
B744, en-route, South China Sea, 2008 On 25 July 2008, a Boeing 747 suffered a rapid depressurisation of the cabin following the sudden failure of an oxygen cylinder, which had ruptured the aircraft's pressure hull. The incident occurred 475 km north-west of Manila, Philippines.
B744, en-route, southeast of Hong Kong SAR China, 2017 On 7 April 2017, a Boeing 747-400 crew did not adjust planned speed at an anticipated holding point when the level given was higher than expected. As a consequence of this and distraction, as the new holding level was approached and the turn began, stall buffet, several stick shaker activations and pilot-induced oscillations occurred when the crew failed to follow the applicable stall warning recovery procedure. Descent below the cleared level occurred and the upset caused injuries in the passenger cabin. Whilst attributing the event to poor crew performance, the Investigation also concluded that related operator pilot training was inadequate.
B744, Halifax NS Canada, 2018 On 7 November 2018, a Boeing 747-400F overran wet landing runway 14 at Halifax at night and was sufficiently damaged as a result of exceeding the available RESA to render it a hull loss. The Investigation attributed the overrun to a combination of factors including use of un-factored landing distance, momentary mishandling of the thrust levers just after touchdown, a pilot-caused lateral deviation diverting attention from deceleration, inadequate braking and late recognition of an approach tailwind component. Poor NOTAM presentation of runway availability also led the crew to believe that the longer and more suitable runway 25 was not available.
B744, Hong Kong China, 2018 On 30 August 2018, a Boeing 747-400F making a crosswind landing at Hong Kong which was well within limits veered and rolled abnormally immediately after touchdown and runway impact damaged the two right side engines. The Investigation found that the flight was an experienced Captain’s line check handling sector and concluded that a succession of inappropriate control inputs made at and immediately after touchdown which caused the damage may have been a consequence of the Check Captain’s indication just before touchdown that he was expecting a landing using an alternative technique to the one he was familiar with.
B744, Johannesburg South Africa, 2009 On 11 May 2009, a British Airways Boeing 747-400 departing Johannesburg came close to stalling following a stall protection system activation during night rotation which continued until landing gear retraction despite immediate appropriate crew response. Subsequent investigation found that loss of lift on rotation had resulted from the unanticipated effect of a design modification in respect of thrust reverser unlocked signals with the aircraft in ground status. The Investigation found that the potential effects of this on the transition from ground to air status including the lower stalling angle of attack in ground effect had not been foreseen.
B744, Johannesburg South Africa, 2013 On 22 December 2013, a Boeing 747-400 taxiing for departure at Johannesburg at night with an augmented crew failed to follow its correctly-acknowledged taxi clearance and one wing hit a building resulting in substantial damage to both aircraft and building and a significant fuel leak. The aircraft occupants were all uninjured but four people in the building sustained minor injuries. The accident was attributed to crew error both in respect of an inadequate briefing and failure to monitor aircraft position using available charts and visual reference. Some minor contributory factors relating to the provision of airport lighting and signage were noted.
B744, Maastricht-Aachen Netherlands, 2017 On 11 November 2017, a type-experienced Boeing 747-400ERF crew making a night rolling takeoff at Maastricht-Aachen lost aircraft directional control after an outer engine suddenly failed at low speed and a veer-off onto soft ground adjacent to the runway followed. The Investigation found that rather than immediately reject the takeoff when the engine failed, the crew had attempted to maintain directional control without thrust reduction to the point where an excursion became unavoidable. The effect of startle , the Captain s use of a noise cancelling headset and poor alerting to the engine failure by the First Officer were considered contributory.
B744, Mumbai India, 2009 On 4 September 2009, a Boeing 744-400 being operated by Air India on a delayed scheduled passenger flight from Mumbai to Riyadh was awaiting take off in normal daylight when ATC advised that there was a fuel leak from the left side, that a fire had started and that the engines should be shut down. An emergency cabin evacuation was carried out using exits on the right hand side and there were 21 minor injuries to the 213 passengers with all 16 crew escaping without injury. The fire on the left hand side was quickly extinguished by the RFFS and aircraft damage was confined to that area.
B744, Paris CDG France, 2003 On 18 January 2003, a Boeing 747-400F being operated by Singapore Airlines Cargo on a scheduled cargo flight from Paris CDG to Dubai taxied for departure in darkness and fog with visibility less than 100 metres in places and the right wing was in collision with a stationary and unoccupied ground de/anti icing vehicle without the awareness of either the flight crew or anybody else at the time. Significant damage occurred to the de icing vehicle and the aircraft was slightly damaged. The vehicle damage was not discovered until almost two hours later and the aircraft involved was not identified until it arrived in Dubai where the damage was observed and the authorities at Paris CDG advised.
B744, Phoenix USA, 2009 On 10 January 2009, a Boeing 747-400 being operated by British Airways on a scheduled passenger flight from Phoenix USA to London had been pushed back from the gate in normal daylight visibility and the engines start was continuing when fumes and smoke were observed in the cabin and flight deck. The aircraft commander decided to return to the stand but there was some delay while the tug was reconnected and the movement accomplished. The intensity of the fumes increased and as the aircraft came to a halt on the stand an emergency evacuation was ordered.
B744, Sydney Australia, 2007 On 15 April 2007, a Qantas Boeing 747 flew through a microburst as it began to flare for a daylight touchdown at Sydney and a hard touchdown accompanied by activation of the onboard reactive windshear warning followed. A go-around was flown to an uneventful further approach and landing. The Investigation noted the absence of an LLWAS, that the dry microburst involved would not have triggered an onboard predictive windshear alert had such a system been fitted and the failure of ATC to fully communicate relevant wind velocity information. The hard landing was judged to have been inevitable.
B744, Taipei Taiwan, 2000 On 31 October 2000, the crew of a Singapore Airlines Boeing 747-400 taxiing for a night departure at Taipei in reduced (but not 'low') visibility with an augmenting crew member present on the flight deck failed to follow their correctly-confirmed taxi instructions and commenced take off on a partially closed runway. The subsequent collision with construction equipment and resultant severe post crash fire destroyed the aircraft killing over half the 170 occupants and injured 71 others. All three flight crew survived.
B744, vicinity Bishkek Kyrgyzstan, 2017 On 16 January 2017, a Boeing 747-400F failed to successfully complete a night auto-ILS Cat 2 approach at Bishkek and the aircraft crashed and caught fire killing its occupants and 35 people on the ground and seriously injuring 36 others. The Investigation found that the flight crew had comprehensively failed to monitor the achieved approach flight path and, after capturing and flying down the false upper ILS GS lobe, had then failed to promptly initiate a go around at the applicable decision altitude. The fact that an automatic ILS approach could continue even on a false glideslope was noted.
B744, vicinity Dubai UAE, 2010 On 3 September 2010, a UPS Boeing 747-400 freighter flight crew became aware of a main deck cargo fire 22 minutes after take off from Dubai. An emergency was declared and an air turn back commenced but a rapid build up of smoke on the flight deck made it increasingly difficult to see on the flight deck and to control the aircraft. An unsuccessful attempt to land at Dubai was followed by complete loss of flight control authority due to fire damage and terrain impact followed. The fire was attributed to auto-ignition of undeclared Dangerous Goods originally loaded in Hong Kong.
B744, vicinity Harare Zimbabwe, 2019 On 8 July 2019, a loud bang was heard following intermediate flap selection on a Boeing 747-400F making an approach to Harare and a concurrent uncommanded right roll was countered with left aileron. The flight was completed without further event but a post-flight inspection found part of the inboard section of the right wing flap assembly was missing and the right fuselage impact-damaged in several places. The missing flap section measuring 3.7 metres by 0.6 metres was recovered with detachment attributed to undetected fatigue cracking already present at component installation. A long history of problems with 747 flaps was noted.
B748, Amsterdam Netherlands, 2017 On 13 January 2017, a Boeing 747-8F arriving at Amsterdam at night in turbulent conditions initially touched down just short of landing runway 36R destroying runway threshold lights and causing minor damage to the aircraft which was subsequently observed after the aircraft had parked. The Investigation determined that a high rate of descent had developed towards the end of a previously stable approach and after this had led to EGPWS Glideslope and Sink Rate Alerts, a go-around was required under operator procedures but was not flown and an insufficient flare then led to a premature hard landing and bounce.
B748, Prestwick UK, 2017 On 30 March 2017, a significant amount of fuel was found to be escaping from a Boeing 747-8F as soon as it arrived on stand after landing at Prestwick and the fire service attended to contain the spill and manage the associated risk of fire and explosion. The Investigation found that the fuel had come from a Bell 412 helicopter that was part of the main deck cargo and that this had been certified as drained of fuel when it was not. The shipper s procedures, in particular in respect of their agents in the matter, were found to be deficient.
B748, Tokyo Narita Japan, 2017 On 15 July 2017, a Boeing 747-8F close to its maximum takeoff weight only became airborne just before the end of the 2,500 metre-long north runway at Narita after the reduced thrust applicable to the much longer south runway was used for the takeoff and the aircraft cleared the upwind runway threshold by only 16 feet. The Investigation found that the very experienced Captain and the very inexperienced First Officer had both failed to follow elements of the applicable takeoff performance change procedures after the departure runway anticipated during pre-start flight preparations prior to ATC clearance delivery had changed.
B748, vicinity Hong Kong China, 2017 On 24 September 2017, a Boeing 747-8UF, which had just made an easterly takeoff from Hong Kong on a moonless night but in good visibility, deviated from its correctly acknowledged SID clearance towards steep terrain and a resultant EGPWS PULL UP Warning was immediately actioned resulting in a terrain clearance of approximately 670 feet. The Investigation found that the SID track deviation was caused by the inadvertently incorrect input of a SID clearance which was supposed to be issued only to locally-based operators whereas the flight concerned was being operated by a foreign operator on behalf of a locally-based one.
B74S, en-route, Anchorage AK USA, 2004 On 5 December 2004 a Boeing 747-100SP experienced a rapid depressurisation and subsequent minor damage after reaching cruise level near Anchorage, Alaska. The crew elected to return to Ted Stevens International Airport, Anchorage where the aircraft landed without further incident.
B74S, Stockholm Arlanda Sweden, 1996 On 14 June 1996, a Boeing 747SP being operated by Air China on a scheduled passenger flight from Beijing to Stockholm was arriving on the designated parking gate at destination in normal daylight visibility when it collided with the airbridge. None of the 130 occupants of the aircraft suffered any injury but the aircraft was substantially damaged and the airbridge was damaged .
B74S, Stockholm Arlanda Sweden, 2006 On 11 December 2006, a Boeing 747SP being operated by Syrian Air on a scheduled passenger flight from Damascus to Stockholm was arriving on the designated parking gate at destination in normal visibility at night when it collided with the airbridge. None of the 116 occupants of the aircraft suffered any injury but the aircraft was substantially damaged and the airbridge was damaged .
B752 / B752, en-route, north of Tenerife Spain 2011 On 20 November 2011, a problem in reading the altitude labels on the ATC radar control display led to a Finnair Boeing 757 being cleared to make a descent which brought it into proximity with a Thomas Cook Boeing 757 in day VMC. Co-ordinated TCAS RAs were generated onboard both aircraft but when the Finnair aircraft failed to respond to its Climb RA and continued descent, the other aircraft, which had responded correctly to its initial RA, received a further RA to reverse their descent to a climb. The Finnair aircraft reported retaining visual contact with the other aircraft throughout.
B752 / CRJ7, San Francisco CA USA, 2008 On 13 January 2008, a Boeing 757-200 and a Bombardier CL-600 received pushback clearance from two adjacent terminal gates within 41 seconds. The ground controller believed there was room for both aircraft to pushback. During the procedure both aircraft were damaged as their tails collided. The pushback procedure of the Boeing was performed without wing-walkers or tail-walkers.
B752, Alicante Spain, 2017 On 10 April 2017, a Boeing 757-200 landing at Alicante in benign weather conditions was mishandled by an inexperienced First Officer on his third and final Line Check attempt and significant damage resulted from rear fuselage runway contact. The Investigation found that after an uneventful flight thus far, the Check Captain intervened to tell the First Officer to lower the nose after touchdown but on receiving a response indicating that he believed a go around was required, the Captain took control to complete the landing. The Investigation considered that the supervising Captain could have prevented the accident by intervening earlier.
B752, Chicago O’Hare IL USA, 2008 On 22 September 2008, a Boeing 757-200 being operated by American Airlines on a scheduled passenger flight from Seattle/Tacoma WA to New York JFK lost significant electrical systems functionality en route. A diversion with an emergency declared was made to Chicago O Hare where after making a visual daylight approach, the aircraft was intentionally steered off the landing runway when the aircraft commander perceived that an overrun would occur. None of the 192 occupants were injured and there was only minor damage to the aircraft landing gear.
B752, Denver CO USA, 2011 On 26 September 2011, a Boeing 757-200 being operated by United Airlines on a scheduled passenger flight from Chicago to Denver experienced a left engine bird strike during deceleration after landing on runway 35R at destination in normal day visibility. The affected engine ran down as the aircraft cleared the runway and was shut down after a report of smoke being emitted from it. The aircraft was stopped and the remaining engine also shut down prior to a tow to the assigned terminal gate for passenger disembarkation. None of the 185 occupants were injured but the affected engine was severely damaged and there was visible evidence that some debris from it had impacted the aircraft fuselage.
B752, en route, western Ireland, 2013 On 20 October 2013, a Boeing 757-200 Co-Pilot believed his aircraft was at risk of stalling when he saw a sudden low airspeed indication on his display during a night descent and reacted by increasing thrust and making abrupt pitch-down inputs. Other airspeed indications remained unaffected. The Captain took control and recovery to normal flight followed. The excursion involved a significant Vmo exceedance, damage to and consequent failure of one of the hydraulic systems and passengers and cabin crew injuries. The false airspeed reading was attributed by the Investigation to transient Ice Crystal Icing affecting one of the pitot probes.
B752, en-route, Central Mauritania, 2010 On 25 August 2010, a Boeing 757-200 being operated by UK airline Astraeus on a passenger flight from Freetown Sierra Leone to London Heathrow was in the cruise at night in IMC at FL370 when vibration levels on both engines increased. When the prescribed ice shedding drill was followed, one engine malfunctioned and vibration on the other remained abnormally high and so a MAYDAY was declared and a diversion to Nouakchott, Mauritania was made without further event. None of the 103 occupants were injured and there was no engine damage.
B752, en-route, North Sea, 2006 On 22 October 2006 a blue haze was observed in the passenger cabin of a Boeing 757-200, operated by Thomsonfly, shortly after reaching cruise altitude on a scheduled passenger flight from Newcastle to Larnaca. A precautionary diversion was made to London Stansted, where an emergency evacuation was carried out successfully.
B752, en-route, Northern Ghana, 2009 On 28 January 2009 the crew of a Boeing 757-200 continued takeoff from Accra Ghana despite becoming aware of an airspeed discrepancy during the take off roll. An attempt to resolve the problem failed and the consequences led to confusion as to what was happening which prompted them to declare a MAYDAY and return - successfully - to Accra. The left hand pitot probe was found to be blocked by an insect. The Investigation concluded that a low speed rejected takeoff would have been more appropriate than the continued take off in the circumstances which had prevailed.
B752, en-route, vicinity Chancay Peru, 1996 On 2 October 1996, the crew of an Aero Peru Boeing 757 which had just made a night take off from Lima after maintenance found that all their altimeters, ASIs and VSIs were malfunctioning. A return was attempted but they did not respond to correctly functioning SPS or GPWS activations or use their RADALT indications and control was lost and sea impact followed. The instrument malfunctions were attributed to protective tape placed over the static ports which was not removed by maintenance before release to service or noticed by the crew during their pre flight checks.
B752, Jackson Hole WY USA, 2010 On 29 December 2010 an American Airlines Boeing 757-200 overran the landing runway at Jackson Hole WY after a bounced touchdown following which neither the speed brakes nor the thrust reversers functioned as expected. The subsequent investigation found that although the speed brakes had been armed and the deployed call had been made, this had not occurred and that the thrust reversers had locked on transit after premature selection during the bounce. It was noted that had the spoilers been manually selected, the thrust reverser problem would not have prevented the aircraft stopping on the runway.
B752, Las Vegas NV USA, 2008 On 22 December 2008, a Boeing 757-200 on a scheduled passenger flight departing Las Vegas for New York JFK experienced sudden failure of the right engine as take off thrust was set and the aircraft was stopped on the runway for fire services inspection. Fire service personnel observed a hole in the bottom of the right engine nacelle and saw a glow inside so they discharged a fire bottle into the nacelle through the open pressure relief doors. In the absence of any contrary indications, this action was considered to have extinguished any fire and the aircraft was then taxied back to the gate on the remaining serviceable engine for passenger disembarkation. None of the 263 occupants were injured but the affected engine suffered significant damage.
B752, London Gatwick, 2013 An announcement by the Captain of a fully-boarded Boeing 757-200 about to depart which was intended to initiate a Precautionary Rapid Disembarkation due to smoke from a hydraulic leak was confusing and a partial emergency evacuation followed. The Investigation found that Cabin Crew only knew of this via the announcement and noted subsequent replacement of the applicable procedures by an improved version, although this was still considered to lack resilience in one respect. The event was considered to have illustrated the importance of having cabin crew close to doors when passengers are on board aircraft on the ground.
B752, Mumbai India, 2010 On 9 June 2010, a Boeing B757-200 being operated by Chennai-based Blue Dart Aviation on a scheduled cargo flight from Mumbai to Bangalore lined up and commenced a night take off in normal ground visibility aligned with the right hand runway edge lights of 45 metre wide runway 27. ATC were not advised of the error and corrective action and once airborne, the aircraft completed the intended flight without further event. A ground engineer at Bangalore then discovered damage to the right hand landing gear assembly including one of the brake units. After being alerted, the Mumbai Airport Authorities discovered a number of broken runway edge lights.
B752, Newark NJ USA, 2006 On 28 October 2006, a Boeing 757-200 being flown by two experienced pilots but both with low hours on type was cleared to make a circling approach onto runway 29 at Newark in night VMC but lined up and landed without event on the parallel taxiway. They then did not report their error and ATC did not notice it after Airport Authority personnel who had observed it advised ATC accordingly, the pilots admitted their error.
B752, Puerto Plata Dominican Republic, 1998 On 1 January 1998, a Boeing 757-200 being operated by Airtours International on a passenger charter flight from Bangor MA USA to Puerto Plata Dominican Republic struck the ground to the right of the intended landing runway shortly after the aircraft commander, flying manually as PF for a third approach, had initiated a late go around after failing to retain effective control of the aircraft. Despite sustaining substantial damage to the landing gear and airframe not appreciated by the flight crew, the aircraft was then successfully flown pressurised to the nominated diversion, Santo Domingo where an uneventful landing was accomplished. A fuel leak from the APU was observed once parked but the decision was taken to shut it down using the normal switch and not to expedite passenger disembarkation and no fire occurred. None of the occupants were injured during the landing attempt at Puerto Plata but the aircraft was found to have suffered extensive damage and had to be repaired before further flight by a team from the aircraft manufacturer.
B752, vicinity Atlanta GA USA, 2011 On 11 March 2011, a Delta AL Boeing 757 departed Atlanta GA with no secondary radar indication visible to ATC and also failed to make contact with departure radar after accepting the frequency transfer instruction. During the eight minutes out of radio contact, it successively lost separation against two light aircraft and another passenger aircraft as it followed the cleared RNAV departure routing for eight minutes until the crew queried further climb on the TWR frequency and were invited to select their transponder on and contact the correct frequency.
B752, vicinity Cali Colombia, 1995 On 20 December 1995, an American Airlines Boeing 757-200 inbound to Cali, Colombia made a rushed descent towards final approach at destination and the crew lost positional awareness whilst manoeuvring in night VMC. After the crew failed to stow the fully deployed speed brakes when responding to a GPWS PULL UP Warning, the aircraft impacted terrain and was destroyed with only four seriously injured survivors from the 163 occupants surviving the impact. The accident was attributed entirely to poor flight management on the part of the operating flight crew, although issues related to the FMS were found to have contributed to this.
B752, vicinity Cincinnati KY USA, 1999 On 22 February 1999, a Boeing 757-200 operated by Delta Air Lines, penetrated a large flock of Starlings during takeoff from Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport, Covington, Kentucky. The bird strike resulted in substantial damage to both engines but with no significant effect on the control of the airplane which made an uneventful return to land.
B752, vicinity Gardermoen Oslo Norway, 2002 On 22 of January 2002, a Boeing 757-200 operated by Icelandair commenced an unstabilised approach to Oslo Gardermoen airport in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) and in the presence of a strong tail wind. The result was a near loss of control and low altitude go-around with exceedance of speed limits and g-values exerted on the airframe.
B752, vicinity Keflavik Iceland, 2013 On 26 February 2013, the crew of a Boeing 752 temporarily lost full control of their aircraft on a night auto-ILS approach at Keflavik when an un-commanded roll occurred during flap deployment after an earlier partial loss of normal hydraulic system pressure. The origin of the upset was found to have been a latent fatigue failure of a roll spoiler component, the effect of which had only become significant in the absence of normal hydraulic pressure and had been initially masked by autopilot authority until this was exceeded during flap deployment.
B752, vicinity London Gatwick UK, 2008 On 13 December 2008, a rushed daylight radar to ILS approach into London Gatwick was made by a Monarch Airlines Boeing 757-200 inbound on a short haul passenger flight. During the approach, flown by the aircraft commander, the speedbrakes had been extended prior to joining the FAT to help slow down, and both flight crew then forgot that the speed brakes were still extended and also did not realise that the commander had disconnected the Autothrottle whilst manually positioning the aircraft onto the ILS LLZ after a late selection of the LLZ mode on the FD had caused an initial fly-through. A speed loss and eventual stick shaker activation at about 1000 ft aal followed after which a go around, initially somewhat unstable until control was passed to the co pilot, was flown with the speed brakes still remaining unintentionally extended until the aircraft was approaching 3000ft aal after which the remainder of the flight was uneventful.
B752, vicinity New York JFK USA, 2016 On 7 July 2016, a right engine fire warning was annunciated as a Boeing 757-200 got airborne from New York JFK and after shutting the engine down in accordance with the corresponding checklist, an emergency declaration was followed by an immediate and uneventful return to land. After an external inspection confirmed there was no sign of an active fire, the aircraft was taxied to a terminal gate for normal disembarkation. The Investigation found that a fuel-fed fire had occurred because an O-ring had been incorrectly installed on a fuel tube during maintenance prior to the flight.
B752, vicinity Puerto Plata Dominican Republic, 1996 On 6 February 1996, a Boeing 757-200 took off from Puerto Plata at night despite awareness at the 80 knot check that the Captains altimeter was not working. Thereafter, the crew became confused as to their actual airspeed and lost control before the aircraft hit the sea surface less than five minutes after takeoff. The Investigation found that the Captain’s pitot probe was blocked and that the three pilots on the flight deck had become confused about which airspeed indications were reliable and had then not recovered from an aerodynamic stall which followed the wholly avoidable mismanagement of the aircraft flight path.
B752/B722, Providence RI USA, 1999 On December 6, 1999, United Airlines Boeing 757 failed to follow its taxi-in clearance after landing at night in thick fog at Providence RI and ended up at the edge of the runway it had just the landed on as a departing FedEx Boeing 727 passed very close by. The TWR controller, without surface radar available, then made unjustified presumptions about the 757s position and twice cleared a 737 to take off whilst the runway was still obstructed. Fortunately, the crew of that aircraft declined until safety was positively assured by the eventual arrival of the 757 at the terminal.
B752/GLID, vicinity Glasgow UK, 2011 On 23 July 2011 a Boeing 757 in Class E airspace east of Glasgow in VMC encountered a glider ahead at the same altitude and deviated right to avoid a collision. The glider, climbing in a thermal, had not seen the 757 until it passed during avoiding action. The closest proximity was estimated as 100 metres at the same level as the glider passed to the left of the 757 in the opposite direction. Since the circumstances were considered to have demonstrated a safety critical risk by the UK CAA, an interim airspace reclassification Class D was implemented
B753, London Gatwick UK, 2014 On 31 October 2014, indications of a malfunction of the right over wing emergency exit slide on take off were followed during the return to land by the complete detachment of the slide and un-commanded but controllable roll. The Investigation found that a series of technical issues with the slide panel and carrier locking devices caused the slide carrier to deploy and the slide to unravel. Although an SB existed to address some of these issues, it had not been actioned on the aircraft. Two operational matters encountered during the Investigation were the subject of Safety Recommendations.
B762 / A310, Toronto Canada, 2001 On 23 October 2001, at Toronto Pearson Airport, a B767 cleared for take-off was forced to reject the take-off when a tractor towing an A310 crossed the runway ahead of it. The tractor had been cleared to cross the active runway by ATC.
B762, Los Angeles USA, 2006 On June 2, 2006, an American Airlines Boeing 767-200ER fitted GE CF6-80A engines experienced an uncontained failure of the high pressure turbine (HPT) stage 1 disc in the No. 1 engine during a high-power ground run carried out in designated run up area at Los Angeles for maintenance purposes during daylight normal visibility conditions. The three maintenance personnel on board the aircraft as well as two observers on the ground were not injured but both engines and the aircraft sustained substantial damage from the fuel-fed fire which occurred as an indirect result of the failure.
B762, San Francisco CA USA, 2008 On 28 June 2008 a Boeing 767-200 being operated as a Public Transport cargo flight by ABX Air (DHL) experienced a ground fire after loading had been completed and all doors closed and just before engine startup at night. The fire was located in the supernumerary compartment of the airplane. This compartment, which is present on some cargo airplanes, is located directly aft of the cockpit and forward of the main deck cargo compartment which is where the toilet, galley, and three non-flight crew seats are located (see diagram below).The flight crew evacuated the aircraft through the flight deck windows and were not injured, but the aircraft was substantially fire damaged and later classified as a hull loss.
B762, vicinity Busan Korea, 2002 On 15 April 2002, a Boeing 767-200 attempting a circling approach at Busan in poor visibility crashed into terrain after failing to follow the prescribed procedure or go around when sight of the runway was lost. 129 of the 166 occupants were killed. The Investigation attributed the accident to actions and inactions of the pilots but noted that the aircraft operator bore considerable contextual responsibility for the poor crew performance. It was also concluded that ATC could have done more to manage the risk procedurally and tactically on the day and that ATM regulatory requirements did not adequately address risk.
B763 / A320, Delhi India, 2017 On 8 August 2017, a Boeing 767-300 departing Delhi was pushed back into a stationary and out of service Airbus A320 on the adjacent gate rendering both aircraft unfit for flight. The Investigation found that the A320 had been instructed to park on a stand that was supposed to be blocked, a procedural requirement if the adjacent stand is to be used by a wide body aircraft and although this error had been detected by the stand allocation system, the alert was not noticed, in part due to inappropriate configuration. It was also found that the pushback was commenced without wing walkers.
B763 / B744, Amsterdam Netherlands, 1998 A Boeing 767-300 departing from runway 24 at Amsterdam made a successful daylight rejected take off upon seeing a Boeing 747-400 under tow crossing the runway ahead. It was found that the crossing clearance had been given by the same trainee controller who had then cleared the 767 for take off after assuming that the towing traffic had cleared based on an unverified assumption based upon incorrect information which had been received earlier from an Assistant Controller. The conflict occurred with LVP in force and with visual surveillance of the runway from the TWR precluded by low cloud.
B763 / B763, Kansai Japan, 2007 On 20 October 2007, at night, a Boeing 767-300 operated by Air Canada was taxiing for Runway 24L at Kansai International Airport for take-off. Meanwhile, another Boeing 767-300, operated by Japan Airlines, had been given landing clearance and was on approach to the same runway. After an incorrect readback, the Air Canada B767 entered the runway to line up. As a consequence of the runway incursion, the B767 on approach executed a go-around on the instructions of air traffic control.
B763 / B772, New Chitose Japan, 2007 On 27 June 2007, a Skymark Boeing 767-300 rejected its night take off from the 3000 metre-long runway 19R at New Chitose from around 80 knots when an All Nippon Boeing 777-200 which had just landed on runway 19L was seen to be taxying across the runway near the far end. There was no actual risk of collision. Both aircraft were being operated in accordance with conflicting air traffic clearances issued by the same controller. None of the three controllers present in the TWR including the Supervisor noticed the error until alerted by the aircraft rejected take off call.
B763, Addis Ababa Ethiopia, 2014 On 12 October 2014, a Boeing 767-300 commenced take-off at Addis Ababa in accordance with its clearance but rejected take-off at 135 knots when the crew saw an obstruction ahead in the centre of the runway and it stopped approximately 100 metres from a vehicle. The Investigation found that the GND controller had cleared the vehicle to enter the runway, the TWR controller had given take-off clearance without first checking that that the runway was clear. It could not be established whether the GND controller had obtained TWR controller permission to grant the vehicle runway access.
B763, Atlanta GA, USA 2009 On 19 October 2009, a Boeing 767-300 being operated by Delta Airlines on a scheduled passenger flight from Rio de Janeiro to Atlanta inadvertently made a landing at destination in night VMC on parallel taxiway M instead of the intended and ATC-cleared landing runway 27R. None of the 194 occupants were injured and there was no damage to the aircraft or conflict with other traffic or vehicles. The third rostered crew member had become incapacitated en route with the consequence that neither of the other pilots had been able to take any in flight rest.
B763, Auckland New Zealand, 2019 On 27 July 2019, a fuel configuration advisory was annunciated on a Boeing 767-300 about to depart Auckland as a result of wing tank imbalance. Having established there was no evidence of a fuel leak, they planned to correct the imbalance in flight but then delayed this until it had exceeded the permitted limits. The fault was only verbally reported after flight and the aircraft continued to operate without centre tank use with maintenance remaining unaware of the fault for several days. The cause of imbalance was a fuel system fault subject to a crew response which was not followed.
B763, Chicago O'Hare IL USA, 2016 On 28 October 2016, an American Airlines Boeing 767-300 made a high speed rejected takeoff after an uncontained right engine failure. A successful emergency evacuation of the 170 occupants was completed as a major fuel-fed fire destroyed the failed engine and substantially damaged the aircraft structure. The failure was attributed to an undetected sub-surface manufacturing defect which was considered to have escaped detection because of systemically inadequate materials inspection requirements rather than any failure to apply existing practices. Safety issues in relation to an evacuation initiated by cabin crew following a rejected takeoff and fire were also examined.
B763, Copenhagen Denmark, 1999 On 24 August 1999, a Boeing 767-300 being operated by SAS on a scheduled passenger flight from Copenhagen to Tokyo was unable to get airborne from the take off roll on Runway 22R in normal daylight visibility and made a rejected take off from high speed. The aircraft was taxied clear of the runway and after a precautionary attendance of the RFFS because of overheated brakes, the passengers were disembarked and transported to the terminal. There was minor damage to the aircraft landing gear and rear fuselage.
B763, en-route North Bay Canada, 2009 On 19 June 2009 a Boeing 767-300 was level at FL330 in night IMC when the Captain s altimeter and air speed indicator readings suddenly increased, the latter by 44 knots. The altimeter increase triggered an overspeed warning and the Captain reduced thrust and commenced a climb. The resultant stall warning was followed by a recovery. The Investigation found that a circuitry fault had caused erroneous indications on only the Captain s instruments and that contrary to the applicable QRH procedure, no comparison with the First Officer s or Standby instruments had been made. A related Operator FCOM error was also identified.
B763, en-route, east southeast of Houston TX USA, 2019 On 23 February 2019, a Boeing 767-300 transitioned suddenly from a normal descent towards Houston into a steep dive and high speed terrain impact followed. The Investigation found that after neither pilot had noticed the First Officer’s inadvertent selection of go around mode during automated flight, the First Officer had then very quickly responded with an increasingly severe manual pitch-down, possibly influenced by a somatogravic illusion. He was found to have had a series of short air carrier employments terminating after failure to complete training, had deliberately and repeatedly sought to conceal this history and lacked sufficient aptitude and competency.
B763, en-route, mid North Atlantic, 2011 On 14 January 2011 an Air Canada Boeing 767-300 was midway across the Atlantic Ocean eastbound at night when the First Officer, who had just woken from an exceptionally long period in-seat rest, suddenly but erroneously perceived a collision risk from oncoming traffic and without warning intervened to dive the aircraft before the Captain could stop him causing 16 occupant injuries. His behaviour was attributed to the effect of sleep inertia following a much longer period of sleep than permitted by Air Canada procedures. It was concluded that many Air Canada pilots did not understand the reasoning behind these procedures.
B763, en-route, near Ovalle Chile, 2005 On 2 January 2005, a Boeing 767-300 being operated by Air Canada on a scheduled passenger flight in day VMC from Toronto to Santiago, Chile was approximately 180 nm north of the intended destination and in the cruise at FL370 when it suffered a run down of the left engine which flight deck indications suggested was due to fuel starvation. A MAYDAY was declared to ATC and during the subsequent drift down descent, with the cross feed valve open, the failed engine was successfully restarted and the flight was completed with both engines operating without further incident.
B763, en-route, New York NY USA, 2000 On 30 March 2000, a Delta Airlines-operated Boeing 767-300 which was 15nm southeast of New York JFK after departure from there and was being flown visually at night by the First Officer with an 'international relief pilot' as extra crew on the flight deck, achieved 66 degrees of right bank before any of the the pilots noticed. A successful recovery was made with no consequences for the occupants and the aircraft then returned to JFK.
B763, en-route, North West Thailand, 1991 On 26 May 1991, a Lauda Air Boeing 767-300 experienced an un-commanded deployment of a thrust reverser climbing out of Bangkok which quickly led to a terminal loss of control and subsequent ground impact which destroyed the aircraft. The cause of the PW4000 thrust reverser fault was not established but it was noted that certification requirements included the ability to continue flight under any possible thrust reverser position and that there had been no pilot training requirement for, or awareness of, the essential response which would have required full aileron and rudder corrective action within 4 to 6 seconds.
B763, en-route, Northern France, 1998 On 9 January 1998, a Boeing 767-300 operated by United Airlines experienced an electrical systems malfunction subsequently attributed to arcing in a faulty electrical loom. The crew elected to divert to London Heathrow where emergency evacuation was carried out on a taxiway upon landing.
B763, Halifax NS Canada, 2019 On 4 March 2019, a Boeing 767-300 crew lost directional control of their aircraft as speed reduced following their touchdown at Halifax and were unable to prevent it being rotated 180° on the icy surface before coming to a stop facing the runway landing threshold. The Investigation found that the management of the runway safety risk by the airport authority had been systemically inadequate and that the communication of what was known by ATC about the runway surface condition had been incomplete. A number of subsequent corrective actions taken by the airport authority were noted.
B763, Luton UK, 2005 On 16 February 2005, at Luton Airport, a Boeing B767-300 collided with the tug pulling it forward when the shear pin of the unserviceable tow bar being used to pull the aircraft broke. The aircraft ran onto the tug when the ground crew stopped the tug suddenly. As result of the collision with the tug the aircraft fuselage and landing gear was damaged.
B763, Madrid Barajas Spain, 2020 On 3 November 2020, a Boeing 767-300 departing Madrid had an explosive main gear tyre deflation just after passing V1 and tyre debris ingested by the adjacent engine led to its failure. After completing the take off on one engine and burning off excess fuel, the aircraft landed back four hours later without further event. The Investigation found that the cause of the deflation was a piece of unidentified debris of a size unlikely to be detected by normal visual runway inspection methods. It also found that there was scope for improvement in related airport and ATC emergency response procedures.
B763, Manchester UK, 1998 On 25th November 1998, baggage containers on a B767, moved in flight causing damage to a cabin floor beam and damage to the standby system power supply cable causing electrical arcing. The aircraft landed safely at Manchester, UK, and the damage was only discovered during unloading.
B763, Manchester UK, 2008 On 13 December 2008, a Thomsonfly Boeing 767-300 departing from Manchester for Montego Bay Jamaica was considered to be accelerating at an abnormally slow rate during the take off roll on Runway 23L. The aircraft commander, who was the pilot not flying, consequently delayed the V1 call by about 10 - 15 because he thought the aircraft might be heavier than had been calculated. During the rotation the TAILSKID message illuminated momentarily, indicating that the aircraft had suffered a tail strike during the takeoff. The commander applied full power and shortly afterwards the stick shaker activated briefly. The aircraft continued to climb away and accelerate before the flaps were retracted and the after-takeoff check list completed. The appropriate drills in the Quick Reference Handbook (QRH) were subsequently actioned, fuel was dumped and the aircraft returned to Manchester for an overweight landing without further incident.
B763, Melbourne Australia, 2006 On 3 August 2006, a Qantas Boeing 767-300 encountered a large flock of birds during rotation and sustained multiple strikes on many parts of the aircraft. Left engine vibration immediately increased but as reducing thrust also reduced the vibration, it was decided following consultation with maintenance to continue to the planned destination, Sydney.
B763, Montreal Quebec Canada, 2013 On 4 November 2013, smoke began to appear in the passenger cabin of a Boeing 767 which had just begun disembarking its 243 passengers via an airbridge after arriving at Montreal. The source was found to be a belt loader in position at the rear of the aircraft which had caught fire. Emergency evacuation using the airbridge only was ordered by the aircraft commander but cabin conditions led to other exits being used too. The fire was caused by a fuel leak and absence of an emergency stop button had prevented it being extinguished until the airport fire service arrived.
B763, Shannon Ireland, 2019 On 15 August 2019, a Boeing 767-300 made a high speed rejected takeoff because of increasing noise from an unsecured flight deck sliding window. Whilst subsequently taxiing during the calculated brake cooling time, fire broke out in the left main gear bay and the aircraft was stopped and an emergency evacuation was carried out whilst the fire was being successfully extinguished. The Investigation did not identify any specific cause for the brake unit fires but noted that the reject had been called when 3 knots above V1 and that the maximum speed subsequently reached had been 14 knots above it.
B763, Singapore, 2015 On 12 July 2015, a Japanese-operated Boeing 767-300 deviated from its acknowledged clearance and lit-centreline taxi routing and began take-off from a parallel taxiway in good night visibility, crossing a lit red stop bar in the process. When ATC observed this, the aircraft was instructed to stop which was achieved without further event. A subsequent take-off was uneventful. The crew did not report the event to their airline or their State authorities because the Captain determined that this case did not need to be reported and these organisations only became aware when subsequently contacted by the Investigating Agency.
B763, vicinity Chicago IL USA, 2007 On March 15, 2007, at night, a Boeing 767-300, operated by United Airlines, experienced a bird strike after take-off from Chicago O'Hare International Airport, Chicago, Illinois. The airplane ecountered a flock of ducks about 800 feet above ground level (AGL) resulting in the complete failure of the left engine. The crew was able to land the airplane safely.
B763, vicinity Gatwick UK, 1999 On 18 October 1999, a Boeing 767-300 encountered a flock of wood pigeons, at 450 feet agl after take off from London Gatwick, and the ingestion of one caused sufficient distress to the left engine for it to be shut down and an air turn back made; it was subsequently concluded that the degree of damage caused was inconsistent with the applicable requirements of engine certification.
B763, Warsaw Poland, 2011 On 1 November 2011, a Boeing 767-300 landed at Warsaw with its landing gear retracted after declaring an emergency in anticipation of the possible consequences which in this event included an engine fire and a full but successful emergency evacuation. The Investigation attributed inability to achieve successful gear extension using either alternate system or free fall to crew failure to notice that the Battery Busbar CB which controlled power to the uplock release mechanism was tripped. Gear extension using the normal system had been precluded in advance by a partial hydraulic system failure soon after takeoff from New York.
B763/B738, vicinity Melbourne Australia, 2010 On 5 December 2010 a Boeing 767-300 being operated by Qantas and departing Melbourne for Sydney in day VMC was following a Boeing 737-800 being operated by Virgin Australia which had also just departed Melbourne for Brisbane on the same SID and a loss of prescribed separation occurred. ATC became aware that the 767 was catching up with the 737 but were aware that it was in visual contact and therefore took no action to ensure separation was maintained. No TCAS activation occurred.
B763/DH8D, Fukuoka Japan, 2010 On 10 May 2010, the TWR controller at Fukuoka cleared a Bombardier DHC8-400 to land on runway 16 and then a minute later whilst it was still on approach cleared a Boeing 767-300 to line up and take off on the same runway. Only a query from approaching aircraft which had been cleared to land prompted by hearing a take off clearance being given for the same runway alerted ATC to the simultaneous runway use clearances. As it was too late to stop the departing aircraft at the holding point, its clearance was changed to line up and wait and the approaching aircraft was instructed to go around.
B764, en-route, Audincourt France, 2017 On 23 August 2017, a Boeing 767-400ER which had departed Zurich for a transatlantic crossing experienced a problem with cabin pressurisation as the aircraft approached FL 100 and levelled off to run the applicable checklist. However, despite being unable to confirm that the pressurisation system was functioning normally, the climb was then re-commenced resulting in a recurrence of the same problem and a MAYDAY emergency descent from FL 200. The Investigation found that an engineer had mixed up which pressurisation system valve was to be de-activated before departure and that the flight crew decision to continue the climb had been risky.
B772 / A321, London Heathrow UK, 2007 On 27 July 2007, a British Airways Boeing 777-200ER collided, during pushback, with a stationary Airbus A321-200. The A321 was awaiting activation of the electronic Stand Entry Guidance (SEG) and expecting entry to its designated gate.
B772 en-route suspected location southern Indian Ocean, 2014 On 8 March 2014, contact was lost with a Malaysian Airlines Boeing 777-200ER operating a scheduled night passenger flight from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing as MH370. The available evidence indicates that it crashed somewhere in the South Indian Ocean but a carefully- targeted underwater search coordinated by the Australian Transport Safety Bureau has failed to locate the aircraft wreckage and the Investigation process is now effectively stalled. A comprehensive Investigation Report has been published and Safety Recommendations informed by the work of the Investigation have been made but it has not been possible to establish what happened and why.