The risk of collision between aircraft while one is crossing an active runway may arise through an error by ATC or flight crew. This check-list identifies the potential sources of such errors so that flight crew may be in the best possible position to deal with their own errors or those of others. This risk is an important sub-set of the general risk of Runway Incursion.
Flight Operations Risk Assessment Checklist - Active Runway Crossing
(this assessment should be carried out periodically to ensure the output is modified as circumstances change)
Establish a flight crew procedure to enable crew to identify active runways which may be crossed during taxiing for departure, or after landing, or during take off or landing.
Identify and publish to flight crew a list of all routinely-used airports (including designated alternates) where the ground crossing of an active runway is a possibility, or where intersecting runways are simultaneously active. Keep this information under constant review and notify flight crew of any changes.
Consider introducing a flight crew SOP to help pilots identify active runways at airfields not on the 'routinely-used' list which they may have to cross while taxiing. Where such runway crossings are identified, include a briefing SOP requirement to acknowledge the fact and the need for caution.
State in Flight Crew SOP whether LAHSO clearances are to be accepted by day, or H24, or not at all. Even if such clearances are not to be accepted, it will still be necessary to establish those airports/runways which use this system so that crews can be made aware of the prospect of getting take off or taxi clearances which may be based upon a LAHSO clearance accepted by other aircraft.
Ensure that flight crew are made aware of the circumstances under which intersecting runways or 'closely spaced' parallel runways are active simultaneously.
In normal circumstances, each active runway has a dedicated controller responsible for movements, separate from the controller responsible for ground movements away from the active runway. The Company Operations Manual must contain clear guidance on any exceptions to the ‘normal’ circumstances.
Establish a specific flight crew SOP for confirming active runway status and accomplishing active runway crossings which takes account of:
Prevailing visibility conditions,
The existence or otherwise of ATC controlled H24 illuminated stop bars at all runway entry points,
The use of TCAS to check for other traffic just before entering a runway,
The requirement for flight crew to brief for any potential active runway crossings,
A requirement for PNF to monitor RTF for possible conflicts,
A requirement for a positive visual check (in one or both directions as appropriate) before crossing an active runway.
Check related SOPs to ensure they specify:
Requirement to ascertain any airfield WIP (Work in Progress) and consider it’s effects on intended and potential aircraft ground movement,
PNF responsibility for confirming aircraft ground position at all times and immediately alerting PF of any uncertainties,
LVP taxiing procedures to include a requirement for positive and continuous tracking of aircraft position on the airport by both flight crew,
Both flight crew normally to monitor ATC throughout the taxi phase. If there is any uncertainty about an ATC clearance, then a request for a restatement of it in full to be made without delay, if necessary, before proceeding.
Establish two-way email contact between the Operator and the Local Runway Safety Teams (LRST) at every airport identified as having the potential for active runway crossing during taxi, or which simultaneously operates intersecting runways, so as to remain aware of their work and of relevant changes to procedures and facilities.
Where appropriate, designate airports identified as Category 'B' (special company briefing) and provide briefing material.