Köppen Climate Classification (KCC)

Köppen Climate Classification (KCC)


The Köppen climate classification (KCC) is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It is used to denote different climate regions on Earth bsaed on local vegetation. 

The Köppen climate classification divides climates into five main climate groups, with each group being divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns, which allow for difference vegetation growth. Each group and subgroup is represented by a letter. All climates are assigned a main group (the first letter). All climates except for those in E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation subgroup (the second letter). For example, Af indicates a Tropical rainforest climate. The system assigns a temperature subgroup for all groups other than those in the A group, indicated by the third letter for climates in B , C , and D, and the second letter for climates in E . For example, Cfb indicates an Oceanic climate with warm summers as indicated by the ending b. Climates are classified based on specific criteria unique to each climate type.

Main climates

The five main groups are:

  • A (tropical),
  • B (arid/dry),
  • C (warm temperate),
  • D (continental/snow), and
  • E (polar). 


  • W: desert
  • S: steppe
  • f: fully humid
  • s: summer dry
  • w: winter dry
  • m: monsoonal


  • h: hot arid
  • k: cold arid
  • a: hot summer
  • b: warm summer
  • c: cool summer
  • d: extremely continental
  • F: polar frost
  • T: polar tundra

Climate Types

Group A: Tropical climates

Group B: dry climates

Group C: Temperate climates

Group D: Continental climates

Group E: Polar and alpine climates

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