Mediterranean-influenced extremely cold subarctic climate (Dsd)

Mediterranean-influenced extremely cold subarctic climate (Dsd)

Dsd: D = Continental  s = Dry summer  d = extremely continental/very cold winter


Mediterranean-influenced extremely cold subarctic climate; coldest month averaging below −38 °C and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C. At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and the driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm.

The Dsd climate is rare and found in very small areas at high elevation around the Mediterranean Basin and the far east of Russia.

Koppen climate map of subarctic climates


Subarctic key

Köppen climate classification map for subarctic climates Dsc, Dwc, Dfc, Dsd, Dwd, Dfd - source: wikicommons, author:  Alice Hunter, 2018.

Flight safety and planning considerations

Winters are extremely cold but dry - follow manufacturers guidance on operations in extremely low temperatures.

Related articles


SKYbrary Partners:

Safety knowledge contributed by: