Mediterranean-influenced hot-summer humid continental climate (Dsa)

Mediterranean-influenced hot-summer humid continental climate (Dsa)


Dsa: D = Snow  s = Summer dry a = Hot summer


Mediterranean-influenced hot-summer humid continental climate; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), average temperature of the warmest month above 22 °C (71.6 °F) and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and the driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm.

Dsa climates are rare; they are generally restricted to elevated areas adjacent to Mediterranean climate regions with a Csa climate well inland to ensure hot summers and cold winters. They are generally found in the highly elevated areas of south-eastern Turkey, north-western Iran and parts of Central Asia.

Examples of airports with a Dfa climate include Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, Arak, Iran, and Chitral, Pakistan.

Climate map showing regions with Humid continental climates: hot summer subtype

Köppen–Geiger climate classification map for Humid continental climates: Hot summer subtype (Dfa, Dwa, Dsa) - source: wikicommons, authors:  Beck, H.E., Zimmermann, N. E., McVicar, T. R., Vergopolan, N., Berg, A., & Wood, E. F., 2018

Flight safety and planning considerations

Cold winters - be mindful of altimeter temperature error correction. Performance limitations in high summer temperatures.

Related articles


SKYbrary Partners:

Safety knowledge contributed by: