Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC)

Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC)


Visual Meteorological Conditions


Visual meteorological conditions (VMC) are the meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling equal to or better than specified minima. (ICAO Annex 2: Rules of the Air)

VMC are detailed in ICAO Annex 2. Essentially, they are:

  • When above 3,000ft or 1,000ft above terrain, whichever is higher:
    • 1500m horizontally and 1,000 ft vertically from cloud;
    • Flight visibility 5km below 10,000ft and 8km above 10,000 ft.
  • When below 3,000 ft or 1,000 ft above terrain, whichever is higher:
    • Clear of cloud and in sight of the surface;
    • Flight visibility 5km.

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