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Engine/APU on Fire: Guidance for Controllers
|Category:||Fire Smoke and Fumes|
This article provides guidance for controllers on what to expect and how to act when dealing with the effects of fire on the aircraft engine(s) or Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). There are no standard rules to be followed universally. As with any unusual or emergency situation, controllers should exercise their best judgment and expertise when dealing with engine fire situations. A generic checklist for handling unusual situations is readily available from EUROCONTROL but it is not intended to be exhaustive and is best used in conjunction with local ATC procedures.
There are some considerations which will enable the controller to provide as much support as possible to the aircraft concerned, and also to maintain the safety of other aircraft in the vicinity and of the ATC service provision in general.
Useful to Know
Fire in the air is one of the most hazardous situations that a flight crew can be faced with. A fire can lead to the catastrophic loss of that aircraft within a very short period of time.
An engine fire is normally detected in a timely fashion and in most cases, contained satisfactorily by the aircraft fire detection and suppression systems. However, in certain circumstances (e.g. an explosive breakup of the turbine), the nature of the fire is such that onboard systems may not be able to contain the fire and it may spread to the wing and/or fuselage. Heat from such fire could cause deformation of wing surfaces, affect the aircraft systems, and ultimately compromise the structural integrity of the aircraft leading to loss of control.
Where an engine fire has been successfully contained, there is still a risk that the fire may reignite and therefore it is still advisable for the crew to land the aircraft as soon as possible and allow fire crews and technical personnel to carry out an inspection of the engine.
Anticipated Impact on Crew
A wide range of practical problems could arise in the cockpit following an engine failure associated with:
- High workload - Such scenarios are associated with intense workload; the crew will carry out the appropriate engine on fire drills.
- Engine shutdown - Normally the fire drills require shutting down the engine and cutting off fuel and electrical supply to the engine. Following this, extinguishant is fired into the engine and a visual inspection of the affected engine is carried out by a member of the cabin or flight crew (if possible). It should be noted that an engine on fire could still produce thrust; it is a critical element to consider when dealing with engine fire emergencies on single engine aircraft. In addition, it should be noted also that historically there have been cases of improper identification of the problematic engine followed by wrong engine shutdown.
- Announcing the problem - the crew will communicate the problem to ATC. Non-standard phraseology should be avoided; an emergency (MAYDAY) or urgency (PAN PAN) call should be made.
- Seeking information and deciding on course of action - the crew will need any information available regarding adjacent aerodromes and weather conditions if they decide to proceed to and land at the nearest suitable aerodrome.
What to Expect
- Rejected Take Off - if the fire is identified prior to V1, the crew might abandon the take-off during the take-off roll; this will normally be communicated to ATC at the same time.
- Emergency landing - if the fire occurs after V1 or during any other airborne phase of the flight, the crew will normally complete the take-off and carry out an emergency landing at the nearest suitable airfield.
- Engine failure - a malfunction associated with fire could render the engine inoperative. The emergency procedures followed will depend whether the aircraft is single or multi engined. For a single-engined aircraft, an immediate landing will be unavoidable whether or not a suitable airfield is available.
- Rate of descent - in the event of an enroute engine fire three descent scenarios are possible. If the fire drill is successful and the fire is out, assuming that there is some distance to the diversion airfield, the crew are most likely to initiate a "drift down" profile resulting in a low rate of descent. If the fire is out and the decision has been made to divert to an enroute airfield or continue to planned destination, the descent rate will be more or less normal for the aircraft type. If the fire is uncontrollable, the flight crew are likely to initiate a high speed/maximum rate descent and divert to nearest airfield.
- Smoke in the Cockpit - possible intrusion of smoke into the cockpit or the cabin, due to bleed air system contamination, with the associated communication problems due to sound distortion caused by donning of oxygen masks.
- Pressurisation problems - due to the engine fire/engine shutdown, the aircraft might not be able to stay pressurised. In this scenario, depressurisation is likely to be gradual but depending upon the aircraft type and any collateral damage caused by the fire, the depressurisation could be rapid.
What Help to Provide
Best practice is to follow the following guidelines using the mnemonic ASSIST:
A - Ensure that the reported emergency is well-understood and acknowledged;
S - Establish and maintain separation from other traffic and terrain;
S - Impose silence on your control frequency, if necessary; and do not delay or disturb urgent cockpity action by unnecessary transmissions;
I - Inform your supervisor and other sectors, units and airports as appropriate;
S - Provide maximum support to the flight crew; and,
T - Allow the flight crew sufficient time to manage the emergency.
The controller should be prepared to:
- Acknowledge emergency on RTF
- Inform the crew about the nearest suitable aerodrome and provide alternate aerodrome details and weather information as soon as possible
- Ask for number of Persons On Board (POB)
- Ask if there are dangerous goods on board
- Inform the landing aerodrome of the inbound traffic with engine/APU on fire
- Inform the crew if fire/smoke is observed
- Offer the pilot an extended final approach
- Clear the runway according to local instructions
- Keep the safety strip clear
- Ensure that a go-around is not necessary due to ATC reasons
- Anticipate the potential for overheated brakes and burst tire
- Expect a blocked runway
- Expect positioning of the aircraft with the burning engine downwind on the runway and immediate evacuation
- Ensure that towing equipment is on stand-by as appropriate
- In case of forced landing, record last known position and time
- Personal Awareness - ATCOs should always monitor the course and altitude of traffic in their sector. Being constantly aware of any ongoing deviations should provide precious time for vectoring of nearby traffic. If there are any uncertainties - verify until there is no doubt.
- Adequate Reaction - Some of the possible actions: transfer all other aircraft to another frequency (possible broadcast to all stations to increase awareness); leave the emergency traffic on the current frequency; increase the volume of the receiver; have a colleague (a separate pair of ears) to also listen to all transmissions from the aircraft.
- Technological Limitations - Try to keep aircraft within radar cover. Have in mind the features of the existing radar system.
- Organisational Awareness - The fast provision of ATCOs during emergency situations should be an objective at administrative level. Periodic training and drills are likely to improve intra-organisational coordination.
- In Flight Fire
- Wing Fire
- In-Flight Fire: Guidance for Flight Crews
- In-Flight Fire: Guidance for Controllers
- Engine Fire Protection
- Aircraft Fire Extinguishing Systems
- Uncontained Engine Failure
- Engine Failure: Guidance for Controllers
- Unexpected Events Training (OGHFA BN)
- Pressurisation Problems: Guidance for Controllers
- Auxiliary Power Unit
Accidents and Incidents
The following events involved engine fire:
- B762, Los Angeles USA, 2006 (On June 2, 2006, an American Airlines Boeing 767-200ER fitted GE CF6-80A engines experienced an uncontained failure of the high pressure turbine (HPT) stage 1 disc in the No. 1 engine during a high-power ground run carried out in designated run up area at Los Angeles for maintenance purposes during daylight normal visibility conditions. The three maintenance personnel on board the aircraft as well as two observers on the ground were not injured but both engines and the aircraft sustained substantial damage from the fuel-fed fire which occurred as an indirect result of the failure.)
- B772, Tokyo Narita Japan, 2008 (On July 30 2008, a Boeing 777-200 being operated by Vietnam Airlines on a scheduled passenger flight landed at Narita in daylight and normal visibility and shortly afterwards experienced a right engine fire warning with the appropriate crew response following. Subsequently, after the aircraft had arrived at the parking stand and all passengers and crewmembers had left the aircraft, the right engine caught fire again and this fire was extinguished by the Airport RFFS who were already in attendance. There were no injuries and the aircraft sustained only minor damage.)
- B744, Mumbai India, 2009 (On 4 September 2009, a Boeing 744-400 being operated by Air India on a delayed scheduled passenger flight from Mumbai to Riyadh was awaiting take off in normal daylight when ATC advised that there was a fuel leak from the left side, that a fire had started and that the engines should be shut down. An emergency cabin evacuation was carried out using exits on the right hand side and there were 21 minor injuries to the 213 passengers with all 16 crew escaping without injury. The fire on the left hand side was quickly extinguished by the RFFS and aircraft damage was confined to that area.)
- MD82, vicinity Lambert St Louis MO USA, 2007 (On September 28, 2007 the left engine of a McDonnell Douglas MD82 caught fire during the departure climb from Lambert St. Louis and an air turn back was initiated. When the landing gear failed to fully extend, a go around was made to allow time for an emergency gear extension to be accomplished after which a successful landing and emergency evacuation from the fire-damaged aircraft followed. The Investigation concluded that the engine fire was directly consequential on an unapproved maintenance practice and that the fire was prolonged by flight crew interruption of an emergency checklist to perform "non-essential tasks".)
- DH8D, en-route, South West Norway, 2004 (On 19 May 2004, a Bombardier DHC8-400 being operated on a scheduled passenger flight from Sandefjord to Bergen by Norwegian airline Wideroe was climbing through 13500 feet approximately 20nm west north west of Sandefjord in day VMC when there was a loud 'bang' from the left engine followed quickly by total power failure and a fire warning for that engine. The crew carried out the QRH drill, declared an emergency and made a return to Sandefjord. Although the left hand engine was shut down and both engine fire bottles had been discharged, the engine warning remained illuminated throughout the remainder of the flight. The aircraft was stopped on the runway after landing and a successful emergency evacuation of all 31 occupants was carried out with no injuries whilst the Airport Fire Service attended to the fire source.)
- … further results
The following events involved failure of the APU and/or APU fire:
- B773, Paris CDG France, 2013 (On 28 July 2013, with passengers still boarding an Air France Boeing 777-300, an abnormal 'burnt' smell was detected by the crew and then thin smoke appeared in the cabin. A MAYDAY was declared and the Captain made a PA telling the cabin crew to "evacuate the passengers via the doors, only via the doors". The resulting evacuation process was confused but eventually completed. The Investigation attributed the confused evacuation to the way it had been ordered and established that a fault in the APU had caused the smoke and fumes which had the potential to be toxic.)
- E145, Kemi-Tornio Finland 2008 (On 11 December 2008 an EMB 145 being operated by Finnish Commuter Airlines on a scheduled passenger flight caught fire during the taxi in after a night landing after the APU failed to start and a major electrical power failure occurred simultaneously. The fire was not detected until after the aircraft arrived on stand when, with the passengers still on board, a member of the ground crew saw signs of fire at the back of the aircraft. The aircraft’s own fire suppression system was successfully used to extinguish the fire, the passengers left the aircraft and there were no injuries and only minor damage to the aircraft.)
- E145, vicinity Manchester UK, 2001 (On 25 September 2001, an Embraer 145 in descent to Manchester sustained a low power lightning strike which was followed, within a few seconds, by the left engine stopping without failure annunciation. A successful single engine landing followed. The Investigation concluded that the cause of failure of the FADEC-controlled AE3007 engine (which has no surge recovery logic) was the aero-thermal effects of the strike to which all aircraft with relatively small diameter fuselages and close mounted engines are vulnerable. It was considered that there was a risk of simultaneous double engine flameout in such circumstances which was impossible to quantify.)
- Guidelines for Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual/Emergency Situations
- ATC Refresher Training Manual, ed.1.0, March 2015