If you wish to contribute or participate in the discussions about articles you are invited to join SKYbrary as a registered user
Mitigation of Wake Turbulence Hazard
From SKYbrary Wiki
|Category:||Wake Vortex Turbulence|
Wake Turbulence Separation Minima
Encountering the sudden uncommanded roll which can be induced when an aircraft encounters wake turbulence from an aircraft on a similar track ahead, can lead to loss of control. Prescribed separation for aircraft, receiving an ATC control service, do not necessarily provide sufficient separation to remove the risk of loss of control.
Under a system promulgated by ICAO, minimum separation between fixed wing aircraft on approach to land, or on take off into initial climb, are defined by the use of aircraft categories based on aircraft maximum take-off mass (MTOM) (see ICAO Wake Turbulence Category). This is judged to be a suitable proxy for the strength of the turbulence which may be created, behind large jet aircraft at relatively slow speeds, by the generation of wing tip wake vortices. The careful observance of these separation minima has prevented loss of control, as a consequence of wake turbulence encounters in the flight phases where they apply, but when they have been ignored, fatal accidents have followed sudden and rapid uncommanded rolls.
Research has been ongoing for some years now to see if runway capacity can be increased by reducing the minimum aircraft spacings, which are required by the current ICAO system for airport arrivals and departures, without reducing the safety margin against loss of control below the safe limit. It may be possible to define the aircraft MTOM categories differently to achieve this. Work in this area is currently being undertaken as a joint EUROCONTROL/FAA initiative.
Wake turbulence encounters in other flight phases have been recorded in controlled airspace at well above radar separation minima but have not, in recent times, led to the terminal loss of control of a large commercial transport aircraft. However, since these events often occur when cabin crew and passengers are moving about the cabin, injuries, sometimes serious ones, have sometimes resulted. To minimize the extent of this risk, many airlines specifically advise their passengers to ‘keep their seat belts fastened whilst seated even if the seat belt sign is off’. Although ICAO currently provides no guidance or procedures in relation to en route wake turbulence, in the UK, the NAA has specified separation minima for this case which must be applied by ANSPs. The requirement is that a minimum of 5 nm shall be maintained between a Heavy (including A380-800) and any lower category aircraft which is following or crossing behind at the same level or less than 1000 ft below. No special longitudinal wake turbulence separations based on time are required.
ICAO Prescribed Separation Minima
The ICAO minima are detailed and illustrated in PANS-ATM Doc 4444. They are defined for aircraft under ATC control which have not reported the preceding aircraft in sight and have been instructed to follow and maintain their own separation from that aircraft visually. If the latter occurs in the case of an IFR aircraft then the pilot-in-command of the aircraft concerned becomes responsible for ensuring that the spacing from a preceding aircraft of a heavier wake turbulence category is acceptable.
The distance between two aircraft on arrival or departure is used where radar separation of traffic is being applied and the time between the successive passage of two aircraft at a point is used where procedural separation applies. Since relatively few airports routinely use radar separation for take off and initial climb, the practical effect of this distinction on IFR traffic is that wake turbulence separations between arriving aircraft are based upon distance and those between departing aircraft are by time interval - at rotation, since this is where wake vortices begin.
Minimum Distance Separation
Minimum distances apply whenever:
- an aircraft directly follows another at the same altitude or less than 1,000 ft below it, or
- if both aircraft are using the same runway or parallel runways separated by less than 760 m or
- an aircraft is crossing behind another aircraft, at the same altitude or less than 300 m (1 000 ft) below.
|Preceding Aircraft||Following Aircraft||Minimum Separation|
Minimum Time Separation: Successive Landings or Full Length Take Offs
Minimum time separation for arriving aircraft not radar-separated is 2 minutes for a MEDIUM aircraft behind a HEAVY aircraft and 3 minutes for a LIGHT aircraft behind a HEAVY or MEDIUM aircraft.
Minimum time separation for departing aircraft which are using:
- the same runway or
- parallel runways separated by less than 760 m (2 500 ft) or
- crossing runways if the projected flight path of the second aircraft will cross the projected flight path of the first aircraft at the same altitude or less than 300 m (1 000 ft) below or
- parallel runways separated by 760 m (2 500 ft) or more, if the projected flight path of the second aircraft will cross the projected flight path of the first aircraft at the same altitude or less than 300 m (1 000 ft) below.
is 2 minutes between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft taking off behind a HEAVY aircraft and a LIGHT aircraft taking off behind a MEDIUM aircraft.
Minimum Time Separation: Intermediate Take Off After a Full Length Take Off
Minimum time separation for departing aircraft which are using:
- an intermediate part of the same runway; or
- an intermediate part of a parallel runway separated by less than 760 m (2 500 ft).
is 3 minutes between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft when taking off behind a HEAVY aircraft and a LIGHT aircraft when taking off behind a MEDIUM aircraft
Minimum Time Separation: Mixed Arrival/Departure Use with Displaced Threshold
Additional minimum time separations apply if the runway involved has a displaced landing threshold. In this case, separation minimum for runways with successive arriving-departing or departing-arriving traffic is a minimum 2 minutes between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft and a HEAVY aircraft and between a LIGHT aircraft and a MEDIUM aircraft if:
- an arriving LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft follows a departing HEAVY aircraft or an arriving LIGHT aircraft follows a departing MEDIUM aircraft or
- a departing LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft follows an arriving HEAVY aircraft or a departing LIGHT aircraft follows an arriving MEDIUM aircraft and
- if the projected flight paths are expected to cross
Minimum Time Separation: Opposite Direction Use by Successive Aircraft
A separation minimum of 2 minutes is required between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft and a HEAVY aircraft and between a LIGHT aircraft and a MEDIUM aircraft when the heavier aircraft is making a low or missed approach and the lighter aircraft is:
- using an opposite-direction runway for take-off or
- landing on the same runway in the opposite direction or
- landing on a parallel opposite-direction runway separated by less than 760 m (2 500 ft).
Prior Awareness of Aircraft Wake Turbulence Category
To improve awareness of the applicable aircraft wake turbulence category, particularly if it is ‘Heavy’ the following related requirements are also included in ICAO air traffic procedures.
- The wake turbulence category of an aircraft should be included in the aircraft flight plan.
- For aircraft in the HEAVY wake turbulence category, the word “Heavy” is to be included immediately after the aircraft R/T call sign in the initial communication between such aircraft and ATS units.
Helicopters are also susceptible to the effects of wake turbulence from large fixed wing aircraft, and the separation requirements above apply equally to helicopters as well as fixed wing aircraft. No specific separation minima are considered necessary for helicopters because of the way they operate in relation to streams of in trail fixed wing aircraft.
Helicopters also produce tip vortices when in flight. In forward flight, the downwash from the main rotor is transformed into a pair of trailing vortices comparable to the wing tip vortices generated by a fixed wing aircraft and there is some evidence that, for a given MTOM, these vortices are more intense than those from an similar-weight fixed-wing aircraft. It is therefore recommended that helicopters should be operated well clear of light aircraft when hovering or whilst air taxiing.
- ICAO Doc 9426 Air Traffic Services Planning Manual, Part II, Section 5 gives detailed characteristics of wake vortices and their effect on aircraft.
- ICAO Doc 8643 Aircraft Type Designators lists the wake turbulence category for each fixed wing aircraft type.
- ICAO PANS-ATM-Doc 4444 specifies all minimum separation requirements defined specifically for wake turbulence purposes and has supporting illustrations of some of the cases.
- Good Aviation Practice - Wake Turbulence by Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand
- FAA "Pilot and Air Traffic Controller Guide to Wake Turbulence"