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Aerofoil
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'''Aerofoil or Airfoil'''
  
  
 
==Definition==
 
==Definition==
  
A surface shaped to produce more lift than drag when moved through the air.
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A body shaped to produce an aerodynamic reaction (lift) perpendicular to its direction of motion, for a small resistance (drag) force in that plane.
  
 
==Description ==
 
==Description ==
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[[File: Aerofoil1.jpg|none|thumb|400px|alt=typical aerofoil cross-section for low-speed flight|Figure 1 illustrates a typical aerofoil cross-section for low-speed flight.]]
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The airflow over the wing increases its speed causing a reduction in pressure; this generates a force ([[Lift|lift]]) perpendicular to the chord of the aerofoil. The airflow below the wing moves much more slowly generating greater pressure and less or negative lift. See the article [[Bernoulli's Principle]] for further information.
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All aerofoil surfaces generate [[Drag|drag]].
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[[File:Aerofoil2.jpg|none|thumb|400px|alt=terms used in describing an aerofoil surface.|Figure 2 illustrates the terms used in describing an aerofoil surface.]]
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The distance between a wing root and wing tip the length of the wing. Wing span is the distance from one wing tip to the other wing tip. The ratio of wing length to chord is called the aspect ratio.
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The amount of lift and drag generated by an aerofoil depends on its shape ([[Camber|camber]]), surface area, [[Angle of Attack|angle of attack]], air density and speed through the air.
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The objective of aerofoil design is to achieve the best compromise between lift and drag for the [[Flight Envelope|flight envelope]] in which it is intended to operate.
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Aerofoil surfaces includes wings, tailplanes, fins, [[Wing Tip Drag Reduction Devices|winglets]], [[Propeller|propeller blades]] and helicopter rotor blades. Control surfaces (e.g. ailerons, elevators and rudders) are shaped to contribute to the overall aerofoil section of the wing or empennage.
  
Aerofoil surfaces includes wings, elevators, rotors, and propellers.
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==Related Articles==
  
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*[[Lift]]
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*[[Drag]]
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*[[Flight Envelope]]
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*[[Angle of Attack]]
  
[[category: General OS]]
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[[category: Theory of Flight]]
[[category: Operational Issues]]
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[[category: Enhancing Safety]]

Latest revision as of 22:47, 29 July 2017

Article Information
Category: Theory of Flight Theory of Flight
Content source: SKYbrary About SKYbrary
Content control: SKYbrary About SKYbrary


Aerofoil or Airfoil


Definition

A body shaped to produce an aerodynamic reaction (lift) perpendicular to its direction of motion, for a small resistance (drag) force in that plane.

Description

typical aerofoil cross-section for low-speed flight
Figure 1 illustrates a typical aerofoil cross-section for low-speed flight.

The airflow over the wing increases its speed causing a reduction in pressure; this generates a force (lift) perpendicular to the chord of the aerofoil. The airflow below the wing moves much more slowly generating greater pressure and less or negative lift. See the article Bernoulli's Principle for further information.

All aerofoil surfaces generate drag.

terms used in describing an aerofoil surface.
Figure 2 illustrates the terms used in describing an aerofoil surface.

The distance between a wing root and wing tip the length of the wing. Wing span is the distance from one wing tip to the other wing tip. The ratio of wing length to chord is called the aspect ratio.

The amount of lift and drag generated by an aerofoil depends on its shape (camber), surface area, angle of attack, air density and speed through the air.

The objective of aerofoil design is to achieve the best compromise between lift and drag for the flight envelope in which it is intended to operate.

Aerofoil surfaces includes wings, tailplanes, fins, winglets, propeller blades and helicopter rotor blades. Control surfaces (e.g. ailerons, elevators and rudders) are shaped to contribute to the overall aerofoil section of the wing or empennage.

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