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==Description ==
 
==Description ==
The Convention on International Civil Aviation (also known as the [[Chicago Convention]]), was signed on 7 December 1944 by 52 States. In October 1947, ICAO became a specialised agency of the United Nations linked to the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
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The constitution of ICAO is the Convention on International Civil Aviation, drawn up by a conference in Chicago in November and December 1944, and to which each ICAO Contracting State is a party. This Convention is also known as the [[Chicago Convention]]). In October 1947, ICAO became a specialised agency of the newly-established United Nations. The Chicago Convention set down the purpose of ICAO:
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''"WHEREAS the future development of international civil aviation can greatly help to create and preserve friendship and understanding among the nations and peoples of the world, yet its abuse can become a threat to the general security; and WHEREAS it is desirable to avoid friction and to promote that co-operation between nations and peoples upon which the peace of the world depends; THEREFORE, the undersigned governments having agreed on certain principles and arrangements in order that international civil aviation may be developed in a safe and orderly manner and that international air transport services may be established on the basis of equality of opportunity and operated soundly and economically;” ''
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There are currently 191 Member States.
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==How ICAO Works==
 +
 
 +
The following description is given by ICAO itself:
 
   
 
   
The Convention on International Civil Aviation set forth the purpose of ICAO:
+
"According to the terms of the Convention, the Organization is made up of an Assembly, a Council of limited membership with various subordinate bodies and a Secretariat. The Chief Officers are the President of the Council and the Secretary General.
  
''"WHEREAS the future development of international civil aviation can greatly help to create and preserve friendship and understanding among the nations and peoples of the world, yet its abuse can become a threat to the general security; and WHEREAS it is desirable to avoid friction and to promote that co-operation between nations and peoples upon which the peace of the world depends; THEREFORE, the undersigned governments having agreed on certain principles and arrangements in order that international civil aviation may be developed in a safe and orderly manner and that international air transport services may be established on the basis of equality of opportunity and operated soundly and economically;” ''
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The Assembly, composed of representatives from all Contracting States, is the sovereign body of ICAO. It meets every three years, reviewing in detail the work of the Organization and setting policy for the coming years. It also votes a triennial budget.
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The Council, the governing body which is elected by the Assembly for a three-year term, is composed of 36 States. The Assembly chooses the Council Member States under three headings: States of chief importance in air transport, States which make the largest contribution to the provision of facilities for air navigation, and States whose designation will ensure that all major areas of the world are represented. As the governing body, the Council gives continuing direction to the work of ICAO. It is in the Council that Standards and Recommended Practices are adopted and incorporated as Annexes to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. The Council is assisted by the Air Navigation Commission (technical matters), the Air Transport Committee (economic matters), the Committee on Joint Support of Air Navigation Services and the Finance Committee.
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The Secretariat, headed by a Secretary General, is divided into five main divisions: the Air Navigation Bureau, the Air Transport Bureau, the Technical Co-operation Bureau, the Legal Bureau, and the Bureau of Administration and Services. In order that the work of the Secretariat shall reflect a truly international approach, professional personnel are recruited on a broad geographical basis.
  
 +
ICAO works in close co-operation with other members of the United Nations family such as the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the Universal Postal Union, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Non-governmental organisations which also participate in ICAO's work include the International Air Transport Association [[IATA]], the Airports Council International (ACI), the International Federation of Air Line Pilots' Associations [[IFALPA]], and the International Council of Aircraft Owner and Pilot Associations (IAOPA)."
  
 
ICAO is responsible for:
 
ICAO is responsible for:
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*Registration
 
*Registration
 
*Airworthiness
 
*Airworthiness
*Prevent economic waste
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*Prevention of economic waste
 
*Fair competition
 
*Fair competition
*Standardization
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*Standardisation
 
*Aviation Law
 
*Aviation Law
 
ICAO SARPS (Standards and Recommended Practices) giving the standards expected and recommendations encouraged are contained in 18 Annexes.
 
  
  
'''ICAO Annexes'''
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==The ICAO Annexes==
  
The 18 Annexes deal with a wide range of subjects as follows:
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The separate article "[[ICAO Annexes and Doc Series]]" gives details of all 19 annexes and ICAO Documents.
*Annex 1 – Personnel Licensing
 
*Annex 2 – Rules of the Air
 
*Annex 3 – Meteorological Services
 
*Annex 4 – Aeronautical Charts
 
*Annex 5 – Units of Measurement
 
*Annex 6 – Operation of Aircraft
 
*Annex 7 – Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks
 
*Annex 8 – Airworthiness of Aircraft
 
*Annex 9 – Facilitation
 
*Annex 10 – Aeronautical Telecommunications
 
*Annex 11 – Air Traffic Services
 
*Annex 12 – Search and Rescue
 
*Annex 13 – Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation
 
*Annex 14 – Aerodromes
 
*Annex 15 – Aeronautical Information Services
 
*Annex 16 – Environmental Protection
 
*Annex 17 – Security
 
*Annex 18 – The Safe Transportation of Dangerous Goods by Air
 
  
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Contracting States are '''''required''''' to give notification of differences to standards, and '''''invited''''' to notify differences from Recommended Practices in Annexes. This information is then listed in Supplements to the Annexes.
  
Annexes 2, 5, 7 & 8 contain international standards and no recommended practices (RPs). The remaining 14 Annexes contain both.
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It should be noted that ICAO Standards do not preclude the development of national standards which may be more stringent than those contained in an Annex.
  
States are '''''required''''' to give notification of differences to standards, and States are '''''invited''''' to notify differences from Recommended Practices in Annexes; these are listed in Supplements to the Annexes.
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==Related Articles==
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*[[ICAO Regions]]
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*[[ICAO Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme]]
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*[[Global Aviation Safety Road Map]]
  
 
==Further Reading==
 
==Further Reading==
  
For further information, refer to the ICAO website: [http://www.icao.int/ http://www.icao.int/]
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*[http://www.icao.int/ ICAO website].
  
[[Category:Regulation]]
 
 
[[Category:Safety Regulations]]
 
[[Category:Safety Regulations]]
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[[Category:Regulatory Bodies]]
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[[Category:Groups/Just Culture]]

Latest revision as of 14:04, 3 April 2019

Article Information
Category: General General
Content source: SKYbrary About SKYbrary
Content control: EUROCONTROL EUROCONTROL

International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO)

Description

The constitution of ICAO is the Convention on International Civil Aviation, drawn up by a conference in Chicago in November and December 1944, and to which each ICAO Contracting State is a party. This Convention is also known as the Chicago Convention). In October 1947, ICAO became a specialised agency of the newly-established United Nations. The Chicago Convention set down the purpose of ICAO:

"WHEREAS the future development of international civil aviation can greatly help to create and preserve friendship and understanding among the nations and peoples of the world, yet its abuse can become a threat to the general security; and WHEREAS it is desirable to avoid friction and to promote that co-operation between nations and peoples upon which the peace of the world depends; THEREFORE, the undersigned governments having agreed on certain principles and arrangements in order that international civil aviation may be developed in a safe and orderly manner and that international air transport services may be established on the basis of equality of opportunity and operated soundly and economically;”

There are currently 191 Member States.

How ICAO Works

The following description is given by ICAO itself:

"According to the terms of the Convention, the Organization is made up of an Assembly, a Council of limited membership with various subordinate bodies and a Secretariat. The Chief Officers are the President of the Council and the Secretary General.

The Assembly, composed of representatives from all Contracting States, is the sovereign body of ICAO. It meets every three years, reviewing in detail the work of the Organization and setting policy for the coming years. It also votes a triennial budget.

The Council, the governing body which is elected by the Assembly for a three-year term, is composed of 36 States. The Assembly chooses the Council Member States under three headings: States of chief importance in air transport, States which make the largest contribution to the provision of facilities for air navigation, and States whose designation will ensure that all major areas of the world are represented. As the governing body, the Council gives continuing direction to the work of ICAO. It is in the Council that Standards and Recommended Practices are adopted and incorporated as Annexes to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. The Council is assisted by the Air Navigation Commission (technical matters), the Air Transport Committee (economic matters), the Committee on Joint Support of Air Navigation Services and the Finance Committee.

The Secretariat, headed by a Secretary General, is divided into five main divisions: the Air Navigation Bureau, the Air Transport Bureau, the Technical Co-operation Bureau, the Legal Bureau, and the Bureau of Administration and Services. In order that the work of the Secretariat shall reflect a truly international approach, professional personnel are recruited on a broad geographical basis.

ICAO works in close co-operation with other members of the United Nations family such as the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the Universal Postal Union, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Non-governmental organisations which also participate in ICAO's work include the International Air Transport Association International Air Transport Association (IATA), the Airports Council International (ACI), the International Federation of Air Line Pilots' Associations International Federation of AirLine Pilots Associations (IFALPA), and the International Council of Aircraft Owner and Pilot Associations (IAOPA)."

ICAO is responsible for:

  • Safety
  • Registration
  • Airworthiness
  • Prevention of economic waste
  • Fair competition
  • Standardisation
  • Aviation Law


The ICAO Annexes

The separate article "ICAO Annexes and Doc Series" gives details of all 19 annexes and ICAO Documents.

Contracting States are required to give notification of differences to standards, and invited to notify differences from Recommended Practices in Annexes. This information is then listed in Supplements to the Annexes.

It should be noted that ICAO Standards do not preclude the development of national standards which may be more stringent than those contained in an Annex.

Related Articles

Further Reading