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*[[Planetary Boundary Layer]]
 
*[[Planetary Boundary Layer]]
  
*[[Accident and Serious Incident Reports: WX]]: A selection of reports on accidents and serious incidents where Weather was a factor. The list includes a number of events involving turbulence and wind shear, including:
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==Accident and Incident Reports==
**[[B735, vicinity Billund Denmark, 1999 (WX)]]: On 3rd December 1999, a Maersk Air Boeing 737-500 landed at its diversion airport with low fuel in severe and un-forecast low level turbulence which affected the whole destination area Billund, Denmark.
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**[[B741, en-route, Pacific Ocean, 1997 (WX)]]: On 28th December 1997, a Boeing 747, operated by United Airlines, which had departed from Tokyo heading for Hawaii, encountered severe turbulence thought to have been associated with a Jet Stream over the Pacific Ocean.
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Events on the SKYbrary database which involve turbulence and wind shear, include:
**[[A320, Bilbao Spain, 2001 (WX AW)]]: On 7th February 2001, an A320, operated by Iberia, crash landed at Bilbao, Spain after encountering windshear.
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**[[DC10, Tahiti Hawaii, 2000 (WX RE)]]: On 24th December 2000, a Hawaiian Airlines DC10 overran the runway at Tahiti after landing long on a wet runway having encountered crosswinds and turbulence on approach in Thunderstorms.
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{{#ask:[[WX::Low Level Windshear]]
**[[MD82, Little Rock USA, 1999 (WX RE FIRE HF)]]: On 1 June 1999, an MD-82 belonging to American Airlines, overran the end of the runway during landing. The captain and 10 passengers were killed.
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== Further Reading ==
 
== Further Reading ==

Revision as of 15:31, 16 November 2010

Article Information
Category: Weather Weather
Content source: SKYbrary About SKYbrary
Content control: EUROCONTROL EUROCONTROL

This article covers the subjects of Wind Shear, Low Level Wind Shear, and Low-level Wind Shear Alert System

Definition

Wind shear is defined as a sudden change of wind velocity and/or direction.

Windshear may be vertical or horizontal, or a mixture of both types. ICAO defines the vertical and horizontal components of wind shear as follows:

  • Vertical wind shear is defined as change of horizontal wind direction and/or speed with height, as would be determined by means of two or more anemometers mounted at different heights on a single mast.
  • Horizontal wind shear is defined as change of horizontal wind direction and/or speed with horizontal distance, as would be determined by two or more anemometers mounted at the same height along a runway.

Description

Low Level Turbulence which may be associated with a frontal surface, with thunderstorms or convective clouds, or with microbursts, is particularly hazardous to aircraft departing or arriving at an aerodrome. Wind shear is usually associated with one of the following weather phenomena:

Effects

The main effects of wind shear are:

  • Violent air movement (up- or down-draughts or swirling or rotating air patterns);
  • Sudden increase or reduction of airspeed;
  • Sudden increase or decrease of groundspeed and/or drift.

Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) (CAT), which may be very severe, is often associated with jet streams.

Rotor action or down-drafts in the lee of mountain waves can create difficult flying conditions and may even lead to loss of control.

Defences

Effective defence against wind shear comprises the following components:

  • Forecasting, recognition and avoidance of wind shear (see below), aided by LLWAS (see below) and airborne avionics equipment; and,
  • Correct response to wind shear encountered during the takeoff, initial climb, approach and landing phases of flight.

Typical Scenarios

  • An aircraft on initial climb encounters a microburst with strong down-drafts, which prevent the aircraft from climbing away, even though the pilot immediately recognises the wind shear and takes correct action.
  • An aircraft on approach in head-wind conditions encounters horizontal wind shear resulting in a change of wind component to tail-wind; the aircraft touches down late and fast and overshoots the runway.

Solutions

  • Improved forecasting of wind shear;
  • Improved training in wind shear recognition, avoidance and recovery;
  • More widespread use of ground and airborne wind shear warning systems.

Low Level Wind Shear Alert System

A Low-level Wind Shear Alert System (LLWAS) is a ground-based system for detecting the existence of wind shear close to an aerodrome.

The system comprises from 6 to 33 anemometers located at various points on the aerodrome surface. Data from the anemometers are fed into a computer which compares the wind speed and direction measured at the different points and provides a warning in the air traffic control tower if a hazardous wind shear is detected. Warnings are runway-specific and are passed to pilots by VHF communication.

LLWAS was first installed in USA in the 1970s and is in widespread use in that country. LLWAS has never been installed in Europe. LLWAS is gradually being replaced by Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) (TDWR).

Wind Shear Recognition and Avoidance

Flight Safety Foundation (FSF) Approach-and-landing Accident Reduction (ALAR) Briefing Note 5.4 — Wind Shear points out that "Flight crew awareness and alertness are key factors in the successful application of wind shear avoidance techniques and recovery techniques."

Whenever wind shear conditions are forecast, or reported by other aircraft, pilots should include discussion of wind shear recognition and response in the takeoff or approach brief.

Whether or not wind shear conditions are expected, the pilot must be able to recognise quickly when wind shear is affecting the aircraft. He/she may be aided in this by airport based warning systems (e.g. LLWAS) or by onboard equipment, such as Ground Proximity Warning System or Airborne Wind Shear Warning Systems.

ALAR Briefing Note 5.4 lists the following indications of a suspected wind shear condition:

  • "Indicated airspeed variations in excess of 15 kts27.78 km/h
    7.71 m/s
    ;
  • Groundspeed variations (decreasing head wind or increasing tail wind, or a shift from head wind to tail wind);
  • Vertical-speed excursions of 500 fpm or more;
  • Pitch attitude excursions of five degrees or more;
  • Glideslope deviation of one dot or more;
  • Heading variations of 10 degrees or more; and,
  • Unusual autothrottle activity or throttle lever position."

Wind Shear on Takeoff and Initial Climb

Horizontal and/or vertical Wind Shear on take off result in sudden loss of airspeed and/or reduction in climb rate, with potentially disastrous consequences. It is vital that such conditions should be quickly recognised if they are encountered, and that pilot response should be immediate and correct.

Before Departure

Flight Safety Foundation (FSF) Approach-and-landing Accident Reduction (ALAR) Briefing Note 5.4 recommends that whenever wind shear conditions are forecast or reported for take off, pilots "should include in their departure briefing the following wind shear awareness items:

  • Assessment of the conditions for a safe takeoff based on:
    • Most recent weather reports and forecasts;
    • Visual observations; and,
    • Crew experience with the airport environment and the prevailing weather conditions; and,
  • Consideration to delaying the takeoff until conditions improve."

"If wind shear conditions are expected," the Briefing Note continues, "the crew should:

  • Select the most favorable runway, considering the location of the likely wind shear/downburst condition;
  • Select the minimum flaps configuration compatible with takeoff requirements, to maximize climb-gradient capability;
  • Use the weather radar (or the predictive wind shear system, if available) before beginning the takeoff to ensure that the flight path is clear of hazards;
  • Select maximum takeoff thrust;
  • After selecting the takeoff/go-around (TOGA) mode, select the flight-path-vector display for the monitoring pilot (PM/PNF), as available, to obtain a visual reference of the climb flight path angle; and,
  • Closely monitor the airspeed and airspeed trend during the takeoff roll to detect any evidence of impending wind shear."

Wind Shear Recovery

The Briefing Note advises that "If wind shear is encountered during the takeoff roll or during initial climb, the following actions should be taken without delay:

  • Before V1:
    • The takeoff should be rejected if unacceptable airspeed variations occur (not exceeding the target V1) and if there is sufficient runway remaining to stop the airplane;
  • After V1:
    • Disconnect the autothrottles (A/THR), if available, and maintain or set the throttle levers to maximum takeoff thrust;
    • Rotate normally at Vr; and,
    • Follow the FD pitch command if the FD provides wind shear recovery guidance, or set the required pitch attitude (as recommended in the aircraft operating manual (AOM)/quick reference handbook (QRH));
  • During initial climb:
    • Disconnect the A/THR, if available, and maintain or set the throttle levers to maximum takeoff thrust;
    • If the autopilot (AP) is engaged and if the FD provides wind shear recovery guidance, keep the AP engaged; or,
      • Follow the FD pitch command, if the FD provides wind shear recovery guidance; or,
      • Set the required pitch attitude (as recommended in the AOM/QRH);
    • Level the wings to maximize the climb gradient, unless a turn is required for obstacle clearance;
    • Closely monitor the airspeed, airspeed trend and flight-path angle (as available);
    • Allow airspeed to decrease to stick shaker onset (intermittent stick shaker activation) while monitoring the airspeed trend;
    • Do not change the flaps or landing-gear configurations until out of the wind shear condition; and,
    • When out of the wind shear condition, increase airspeed when a positive climb is confirmed, retract the landing gear, flaps and slats, then establish a normal climb profile."

Wind Shear on the Approach and Landing

Horizontal and/or vertical wind shear during the approach can result in sudden loss of airspeed and apparent loss of power, with potentially disastrous consequences. A sudden change of wind component or drift prior to landing can make the approach unstable at a point where go-around is not possible or would be extremely hazardous. It is vital that such conditions should be quickly recognised if they are encountered, and that pilot response should be immediate and correct.

Descent Briefing

Flight Safety Foundation (FSF) Approach-and-landing Accident Reduction (ALAR) Briefing Note 5.4 recommends that whenever wind shear conditions are forecast or reported approach and landing, the approach briefing should include the following:

  • "Based on the automatic terminal information service (Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS)) broadcast, review and discuss the following items:
  • "Discuss the intended use of automation for vertical navigation and lateral navigation as a function of the suspected or forecasted wind shear conditions."

The briefing note contains some valuable recommendations for preparation and flight procedures. The section concerning Recovery during Approach and Landing is reproduced below.

Recovery During Approach and Landing

"If wind shear is encountered during the approach or landing, the following recovery actions should be taken without delay:

  • Select the takeoff/go-around (TOGA) mode and set and maintain maximum go-around thrust;
  • Follow the Flight Director pitch command (if the FD provides wind shear recovery guidance) or set the pitch-attitude target recommended in the AOM/QRH;
  • If the AP is engaged and if the FD provides wind shear recovery guidance, keep the AP engaged; otherwise, disconnect the AP and set and maintain the

recommended pitch attitude;

  • Do not change the flap configuration or landing-gear configuration until out of the wind shear;
  • Level the wings to maximize climb gradient, unless a turn is required for obstacle clearance;
  • Allow airspeed to decrease to stick-shaker onset (intermittent stick-shaker activation) while monitoring airspeed trend;
  • Closely monitor airspeed, airspeed trend and flight path angle (if flight-path vector is available and displayed for the PNF); and,
  • When out of the wind shear, retract the landing gear, flaps and slats, then increase the airspeed when a positive climb is confirmed and establish a normal climb profile.

Reporting Procedure

If significant wind shear is encountered during the takeoff and initial climb, or on approach and landing, it should be reported to air traffic control immediately. If the effects on aircraft control are exceptional and/or beyond the effects typically encountered, then an appropriate air safety report should be raised after flight completion.

Related Articles

Accident and Incident Reports

Events on the SKYbrary database which involve turbulence and wind shear, include:

  • B732, vicinity Abuja Nigeria, 2006 (On 29 October 2006, an ADC Airlines’ Boeing 737-200 encountered wind shear almost immediately taking off from Abuja into adverse weather associated with a very rapidly developing convective storm. Unseen from the apron or ATC TWR it stalled, crashed and burned after just over one minute airborne killing 96 of the 105 occupants. The Investigation concluded that loss of control during the wind shear encounter was not inevitable but was a consequence of inappropriate crew response. Concerns about the quality of crew training and competency validation were also raised.)
  • A333, Montréal QC Canada, 2014 (On 7 October 2014, an Airbus A330-300 failed to maintain the runway centreline as it touched down at Montréal in suddenly reduced forward visibility and part of the left main gear departed the runway edge, paralleling it briefly before returning to it and regaining the centreline as the landing roll was completed. The Investigation attributed the excursion to a delay in corrective action when a sudden change in wind velocity occurred at the same time as degraded visual reference. It was found that the runway should not have been in use in such poor visibility without serviceable lighting.)
  • AS50, en-route, Hawaii USA, 2005 (On 23 September 2005, an AS350 helicopter, operated by Heli USA Airways, crashed into the sea off Hawaii following loss of control associated with flight into adverse weather conditions.)
  • A319, vicinity Wuxi China, 2010 (On 14 September 2010, the crew of a Sichuan Airlines Airbus A319 continued an ILS approach into Wuxi despite awareness of adverse convective weather conditions at the airport. Their inattention to automation management then led to a low energy warning and the inappropriate response to this led to the activation of flight envelope protection quickly followed by a stall warning. Inappropriate response to this was followed by loss of control and a full stall and high rate of descent from which recovery was finally achieved less than 900 feet agl.)
  • CRJ1, Kinshasa Democratic Republic of Congo, 2011 (On 4 April 2011, the crew of a Georgian Airways Bombardier CRJ100 operating a domestic flight for the United Nations lost control of their aircraft as they commenced a go around from below the MDA for the non precision approach flown due to an absence of visual reference with the runway. They were aware from their weather radar of severe convective weather in the vicinity of the airport although the METAR passed by ATC did not indicate this. The aircraft crashed alongside the runway and was destroyed. All occupants except one who was seriously injured were killed.)

... further results

Further Reading

  • ICAO Doc 9817 "Manual on Low-Level Wind Shear and Turbulence Reporting"

Flight Safety Foundation

The Flight Safety Foundation ALAR Toolkit provides useful training information and guides to best practice. Copies of the FSF ALAR Toolkit may be ordered from the Flight Safety Foundation ALAR website http://www.flightsafety.org/current-safety-initiatives/approach-and-landing-accident-reduction-alar

FAA

  • "Lessons Learned from Transport Airplane Accidents": Windshear