Best Practices for Controller Education
The experience of instructors in several countries has shown that controllers sometimes have a limited perception of the difficulties that general aviation can face and how to deal with them.
Best Practices for Airspace Protection
It is rare (although not unknown) that aircraft deliberately infringe controlled airspace, so it is necessary to consider how to reduce the risk that infringements cause when these mistakes occur. Controllers have different responsibilities and pressures depending on the type of airspace they are controlling in (e.g. Class A or Class D) and their ability to look out for aircraft infringing their airspace will vary accordingly. Whether aircraft are using a transponder or not will have a significant impact on this, especially where primary returns are observed and assumed to be under a piece of airspace that does not extend to the surface. A number of these initiatives are related to maximising the benefit of transponders and further details can be found in the best practice section for airspace users.
Best Practices for Data Collection & Analysis
Data is essential to understanding the scale and the amount of risk that is associated with the issue, but it can do much more. It can provide information on the causes of infringement and particular problem areas enabling the targeting of actions and resources. Accurate data also provides a baseline against which to measure the success of improvement activities.
Best Practices for Pilot Engagement & Awareness
Reducing the number of airspace infringements requires a collaborative approach from ANSPs, Regulators and pilots. Making pilots aware of the problem and engaging them in the solution has been seen to be the best way forward. It will however be a continuing requirement and not something that can be done once, as new pilots are being trained and taking to the air every year.
Best Practices for Pilot Assistance
Complexity of airspace has been identified as a cause of some infringements, as has a lack of appreciation of ATC operating practices. The more helpful the information that can be given to pilots, the less likely they are to make errors leading to airspace infringements.
Best Practices for Military Issues
In many of the countries surveyed, around 10% of airspace infringements are caused by military pilots, often those from other countries on short detachments.